« Romanticism + German Nationalism = | Main

Sunday, January 13, 2019

Comments

Adams

THERE ARE SOME TERMS HERE THAT ARE NOT ON THE TERMS SHEET. YOU ARE ONLY RESPONSIBLE FOR TERMS SHEET STUFF

Congress of Vienna
Settlement conference that met after Napoleon’s defeat in order to reorganize Europe.
Controlled by Metternich’s 4 Great Powers. Established a conservative order that
would last until 1848 (some say until late 1871)

Quadruple Alliance (Britain, Austria, Prussia, Russia) the 4 major enemies of Napoleon who banded together to defeat him and ensure peace after the war at the Congress of Vienna.

Klemens von Metternich
Austria’s chief minister and architect of the post-Napoleonic world (The Age of Metternich)
Host of the Congress of Vienna that established the Concert of Europe
Committed to Conservatism, Legitimacy, Intervention & a Balance of Power.

Edmund Burke: Reflections on a Revolution in France
Early Critic of the French Revolution (when Englishmen were generally enthusiastic),
predicted that it would end in bloodshed.
THE Conservative theorist!
Societies evolve over time. Revolutionary changes break the implicit contract with history.
Change should be gradual (evolutionary) like England, not sudden (revolutionary) like France.

“Balance of Power”
Principle of Metternich and the Congress of Vienna. Balance was sought in order to avoid European dominance by one country (Napoleon’s France being fresh on their minds) . In the 1700s the Balance had been obtained by accident, in the 1800s this balance was the result of conscious effort of the Great Powers.

Legitimacy
Generally: a government that is considered valid by whomever is speaking.
Reality check: Legitimacy is in the eye of the beholder.
In this Chapter: It’s a Principle embraced by Metternich and the Congress of Vienna.
Metternich was determined to re-establish legitimate governments.
He (and conservatives in general) defined “legitimate” as pre-1789 governments.
However, Liberals believed legitimacy came from the Locke’s “consent of the governed”

“Status Quo” the way things are. Conservatives generally want to maintain the Status Quo.
Metternich’s Quadruple Alliance was determined to maintain the St

Concert of Europe (Congress System)
The effort of the Four Great Powers to resolve issues by consultation and agreement. The great powers hoped that the Concert of Europe would lead to the preservation of the balance of power and of the conservative order established at The Congress of Vienna. (How long it lasted depends upon which history book you are reading).


Conservatism
Political philosophy that evolved during/after the French Revolution. Articulated best by Burke, conservatives favored obedience to political authority, believed that organized religion was crucial to social order, hated revolutionary upheavals, and were unwilling to accept either the liberal demands for civil liberties and representative governments or the nationalistic aspirations generated by the French revolutionary era. The community took precedence over individual rights; society must be organized and ordered, and tradition remained the best guide for order. Conservatism’s major pillars were Legitimate monarchies, landed aristocracies, and established churches.


Carlsbad Decrees (Karlsbad) –
Metternich’s repressive response to a German Nationalistic Student movement (Burschenschaften). Drawn up in 1819 by Metternich, the decrees closed the Burschenschaften, provided censorship of the press, and placed the universities under close supervision and control, putting the lid on German nationalism. Note the different approaches taken by the Germans and the English to civil unrest.


The Decembrist Revolt (1825)
Liberal Revolt of Russian Officers in Moscow against the newly crowned Nicholas I.
They demanded a liberal constitution and the abolition of serfdom. Brutally put down by Nicholas. These Martyrs became symbols for squished liberals in Russia for decades.
Good example of one way to stop social change: violent reaction and refusal to budge.

SECTION 21: 2

Political Liberalism-
Political idea developed according to Enlightenment principles. stressed that people should be free from restraint. Also the protection of civil liberties or the basic rights of all people, which included equality before the law, freedom of assembly, speech, press, and freedom from arbitrary arrest. Liberals wanted these freedoms guaranteed by a written document. They wanted religious toleration, separation of church and state, and the right to peacefully oppose government. They favored a legislature elected by qualified voters. They also advocated the ministerial system in which ministers of a king are responsible to legislature, allowing legislative to check the power of executive. They believed in equal civil rights for all, but not equal voting rights (political liberalism is tied to the middle class). Liberals were not democrats and did not support the lower classes (poor) voting.

Economic Liberalism- (Classical economic theory)
focused around laissez-faire. Governments should not interfere with supply and demand or the economic liberty of the individual. If individuals are allowed economic liberty, ultimately they will bring about the maximum good for the maximum number and benefit the general welfare of society. Liberals wanted to make and sell goods freely. They favored removal of tariffs and barriers to trade. They opposed the regulations on labor and wages by governments or by guilds.
Notice the connection with political liberalism: FREEDOM & Liberty.

Classical Economics / Laissez Faire

The dominant economic belief of 19th century LIBERALISM.

Used by the bourgeoisie to oppose reforms to factory conditions and attempts by governments to regulate the excesses of the industrial revolution.

Eventually, later generations of Liberals will reject THIS portion of liberalism and liberalism will embrace economic reform.

Adam Smith: Enlightenment Economist
THE architect of early 19th century ECONOMIC liberalism. The economy is governed by natural laws and should be allowed to operate without government intervention (laissez-faire).
Significance: He could be used to justify the horror of the factory system on individuals. Misery does not come from greed but from ‘natural economic laws’. “whew, no need to care about the poor now”

Nationalism-
the belief that every nationality (group) should have its own state (it and Liberalism were two “ideologies of change” that threatened the status quo). Nationalism is based on an awareness of being part of a community that has common institutions, traditions, language, and customs. This community (nation) becomes the focus of the individual’s primary political loyalty.
Nationalism could weaken/destroy existing governments: as in the case of Austria.
Or Nationalism could strengthen/create existing governments: as in the case of France, England.
Originally nationalism was opposed by Conservatives since it was 1) disruptive to the existing social order AND 2) tied to liberalism. Eventually will be embraced by conservatives as a way of getting your country “fired up


Socialism (during the early 1800s)
Broad concept that was used to describe anyone who
- Embraced Liberal Political Ideas
But expanded those ideas to include the poorer classes (voting)
- Rejected Liberal Economic Ideas
- Fundamentally believed that society as it was, could be and should be “fixed”.
… and that’s about all you’ll get this herd of cats to agree to at this stage of history.

Utopian Socialists
Early Socialist (Pre-Marxist) who believed in political / social equality, & cooperation and rejected the idea that the right of property is the most important right. They believed that through planning and organization, a better society could be created based on the principal of “From each according to his ability, to each according to his need.”
The name “Utopian” was a negative label given to these early reformers by Marxists-Socialists who thought that their ideas were impractical dream.


Henri de Saint-Simon Utopian Socialist 

socialist who advocated the approach of the organization of society into a cooperative community. Two elites, the intellectual leaders and the industrial managers, would use industrial and scientific technology to coordinate society for the benefit of all. In the process, government would vanish, as it would no longer be needed in the new society.



Charles Fourier- (RB 274) Utopian Socialist 
Advocated the creation of small model communities called phalanxes. These were self-contained cooperatives, each consisting ideally of 1620 people, because obviously 1630 would be far too many. Communally housed, the inhabitants would live and work together for mutual benefit. Work assignments would be rotated frequently to relieve workers of undesirable tasks. He was unable to gain financial backing for his phalanxes, and his plan remains

Louis Blanc - Utopian Socialist 

- socialist who condemned competition, and advocated a cooperative model. He called for the establishment of State-owned, but worker-run workshops that would manufacture goods for public sale. He believed that the gradual spread of these workshops would provide a cooperative rather than competitive foundation for the entire economic life of the nation.

Robert Owen Utopian Socialist

English Factory owner who improved the wages & working conditions in his factories and still profited. Showed that successful capitalism did not require the exploitation of workers.


21: 4
German Nationalism-
Early 19th political movement that swept central Europe. It was all the rage in universities. German Nationalist wanted to see all Germanic people living in a single German state. Obviously this could be perceived as dangerous by both the Austrians and Prussians since nationalism could destroy their countries. It was a movement in which Germans became increasingly aware and proud of their “german-ness” All the best music, culture, philosophy, economic growth, was seen by them as coming from German culture. They considered themselves the wave of the future.
SPOILER ALERT: Early German nationalism is tied to Liberal political beliefs. It bubbles up from the masses, but is crushed.(chp 21) However, Germany will be created (chp 23) by German Authoritarian/Conservatives from the top down.


Carlsbad Decrees (Karlsbad) –
Metternich’s repressive response to a German Nationalistic Student movement (Burschenschaften). Drawn up in 1819 by Metternich, the decrees closed the Burschenschaften, provided censorship of the press, and placed the universities under close supervision and control, putting the lid on German nationalism. Note the different approaches taken by the Germans and the English to civil unrest.


Corn Laws - (p. 668)
Corn = any grain (wheat, oats, etc). The Corn Laws imposed high Tariffs (taxes) on imported foreign grain in England. These Mercantilistic policies were designed to help the English land owners (the rich). Corn Laws resulted in higher bread prices for the poor & middle classes.
Significances
1: The middle class opposed the corn laws (laissez faire / high prices) but were powerless in the early 1800s to stop it. The overturning of the corn laws in chp 21 will be a major turning point for England.


Peterloo Massacre- (668)
In 1819 60,000 demonstrators protested against the Corn Laws (caused high prices on bread). A squadron of cavalry attacked the crowd and killed 11 people. This caused the British government to become even more repressive, restricting large public meetings and the dissemination of pamphlets among the poor.
Bourbon Restoration (1814-1830) The re-establishment of the Bourbons to lands they had lost from the French Revolution/Napoleonic eras. Primarily referring to Louis XVIII’s placement on the French Throne in 1815. (but could include Ferdinand VII’s restoration to Spanish throne in 1814, and Ferdinand I’s restoration as king of Naples and Sicily

People’s Charter


The Decembrist Revolt (1825) (p 680)
Liberal Revolt of Russian Officers in Moscow against the newly crowned Nicholas I.
They demanded a liberal constitution and the abolition of serfdom. Brutally put down by Nicholas. These Martyrs became symbols for squished liberals in Russia for decades.
Good example of one way to stop social change: violent reaction and refusal to budge.

Louis Philippe (r. 1830-1848) King of the French the “bourgeois monarch” he replaced his cousin Charles X after July Revolution of 1830. He got his political support from the upper middle class. Liberal reforms were made that benefited the upper bourgeoisie (constitutional changes, financial qualifications for voting were reduced)
Series of revolutions that broke out throughout Europe and threatened Metternich’s conservative order.
In France, Louis Philippe becomes the “Citizen King” during the July Revolutions.
The old Austrian Netherlands breaks away from the Dutch Republic, creates Belgium, and gets a new king, Leopold I.

July Monarchy 1830 – 1848
The Monarchy of France under Louis-Philippe that was supported by the liberal bourgeoisie.
Eventually, economic hardship for the poor led to a revolution in 1848

Great Reform Bill 1832 (625)
Sweeping Parliamentary reforms adopted in 1832. The franchise was expanded to the upper middle class and ‘rotten boroughs’ were fixed. These reforms were pushed by the Whig Party in order to avoid revolution. (trees bend in a storm, so that they do not break)


How Britain has avoided Revolution
By making reforms to the system before people reach the breaking point. [Reform Bill of ’32 etc.]
Important Note: Reform and humane treatment of the poor are not necessarily done to help the poor, but to allow for those in power to remain so. (Think about that the next time someone says we need to abolish welfare. Think about who really benefits from keeping the poor fed: Pssst [stage whisper] you do)


21:5
Louis Philippe (r. 1830-1848) the “bourgeois monarch”
he replaced his cousin Charles X after July Revolution of 1830. He got his political support from the upper middle class. Liberal reforms were made that benefited the upper bourgeoisie (constitutional changes, financial qualifications for voting were reduced)

Louis Napoleon (Napoleon III)-
nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte, in 1848 he was elected in a landslide victory to become the first president of France’s Second Republic. He capitalized on the chaos of 1848 to come to power. He will eventually become Emperor Napoleon (in chapter 22).

June Days Revolt 1848
- Background: After Workers riot in Paris, Louis-Philippe Abdicates. A provisional government is established which consists of moderate republicans and Louis Blanc’s Socialists. When the new elections are held, the socialists lose big.
- Events in June: The socialist take to the streets of Paris for 4 days, but are brutally crushed by the French Army. It appeared that a rift had developed between the middle and working classes of France.

The Second Republic 1848–1852
Proclaimed when Louis Philippe abdicated. Louis Napoleon is elected President of the Second Republic after the chaos of the June Days Revolt.
The June Days Revolt (and socialism in general) scared the crap out of Frenchies, and he was able to capitalize on people fear/desire

The Second Empire: 1852+
Louis Napoleon will transform the 2nd Republic into the 2nd Empire, and become Emperor Napoleon III

Big Germany vs Little Germany
In the debate over German unification, the inclusion of Austria causes a problem.
If one wishes to have a Germany that includes ALL Germans, Austria must be included. However, including Austria would bring in its eastern subjects (Slavic). This is the Big Germany solution.
If one wishes to have a Germany that included ONLY Germans, Austria must be excluded. However, excluding Austria would mean a large number of Germans living in Austria would not be in the new Germany. This is the little Germany solution.

Frankfurt Parliament
The Frankfurt Parliament was created during the Revolutions of 1848 to draft a constitution for all of Germany. In 1849, the Frankfurt Parliament adopted a constitution for Germany calling for a parliamentary government with a hereditary emperor. Frederick William of Prussia received 290 votes to be emperor of the new Germany. However, he refused. Frederick William desired to be the autocratic king of a smaller Prussia rather than be the limited king of a larger Germany. Prussia also rejected the constitution they had crafted. With those two rejections and the rejection from Austria, the Frankfurt Parliament did not survive. By May 1849, the majority of the delegates were ordered home by their governments. Finally in June 1849, the remaining delegates were dispersed by Wurttemberg troops and police. With the dispersions, the Frankfurt Parliament was over and Germany was not unified. . . yet. : )


Industrial Revolution
A long term, massive upheaval in the social / economic structure of Europe during the 1800s and late 1700s as a result of new power sources, new technologies, and new production methods.

Industrialization
- Urbanization
- Railroads
- impact on women
- early reform

England (p 583)
The industrial revolution began in England in the second half of the 1700s
and by 1850 was the wealthiest country in the world.

Why the industrial revolution began in Britain (p 583)
increased population, good financial system, natural resources, Markets (Colonies),
& Parliament providing a favorable business climate.

Textile Industry (p 499, 695)
Industry that produces Clothes.
The industry that led the way in the industrial revolution was the textile industry.


The Domestic System (cottage industry)
System of Manufacturing in the 1700s (pre-industrial revolution)
Workers would produce textile goods in their own home in their spare time for extra money.
The System is inefficient; however, it gives workers control of their existence.

Factory System (vs the older “cottage industry”)
The Factory system became the basic way of Producing goods during the Industrial Revolution.
It is Based on organizing labor around machines.
During the Industrial Revolution, Work shifts FROM the peasant cottage TO the factory.
Benefits: Mass Production, Cheaper goods, Greater quantities produced
Not so much for the workers: Regimented lives of workers, loss of control of life (regular, unvaried hours). Repetitive and boring work. Harsh requirements and regulations on workers.
Created the notion of the “work week”

The Crystal Palace
Massive (19 acre) structure designed for the 1st ever Industrial Fair in 1851. Designed to house 100,00 exhibits that would ‘show off’ Britain’s wealth to the world. It was to be a gigantic symbol of British success.


ECONOMIC LIBERALISM: (+ Adam Smith)
- Thomas Malthus: Essay on the Principles of Population
Economic Liberal who argued that population increases faster than food production. Famine is nature’s way of balancing the system. His conclusion: efforts to help the poor actually create more problems (famine, disease, etc.) that occur with overcrowding. Charles Dickens mocks Malthus by putting his ideas in the mouth of Ebenezer Scrooge.

- David Ricardo - 19th Century Economic Liberal
Advocated allowing economic laws to work themselves out and argued against government interference. He developed his “iron law of wages” that states that raising wages arbitrarily would be pointless since it only accomplishes the vicious cycle the causes raises and drops in population. 
Significance: Justified the horrors of the factory system as being natural. His theory let people off the hook for improving the lives of those around them. “why do it? It is futile”

Verify your Comment

Previewing your Comment

This is only a preview. Your comment has not yet been posted.

Working...
Your comment could not be posted. Error type:
Your comment has been posted. Post another comment

The letters and numbers you entered did not match the image. Please try again.

As a final step before posting your comment, enter the letters and numbers you see in the image below. This prevents automated programs from posting comments.

Having trouble reading this image? View an alternate.

Working...

Post a comment

Your Information

(Name and email address are required. Email address will not be displayed with the comment.)