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Saturday, January 26, 2019



Section 1
Utilitarianism: Glossary 9

Jeremy Bentham (Utilitarianism)

Poor Laws (p 720)
Earliest attempts to mitigate the problems of poverty. They were created during the late medieval period and focused on local & Charitable help and were very haphazardly administered. The Poor laws were not adequate for the mass poverty created by the industrial revolution. Governments will begin greater involvement in fighting poverty after the 1830s.

Public Health Movement (p 720) : political movement that pushed governments to provide better environments for Poor people. Running water and Sewers were a major accomplishment of this movement.

Germ Theory: p723

Louis Pasteur: p 723

Paris, Renovation of p 724

Section 2
Middle Class Values:
Focus on “outward appearances” “culture and Leisure” “strict code of behavior and morality”

Domestic Service (732) & Prostitution (735):

Section 3
Companionate Marriage: Pair Bonding based on Romantic Love. The Belief that marriage should be based on love and devotion to a partner (your soul mate). It’s what you think of as marriage. It’s a Victorian invention. We’re in a 150 year experiment to see if this is a workable model.

Cult of Domesticity
prevailing value system among the upper and middle classes during the 19th century. This value system emphasized the woman's role within the home. "True women" were supposed to possess four cardinal virtues: piety, purity, domesticity, and submissiveness.

Separate Spheres
Victorian ideology that defines and prescribes separate spheres for women and men..The notion of separate spheres dictates that men, based primarily on their biological makeup as well as the will of God, inhabit the public sphere – the world of politics, economy, commerce, and law. Women's "proper sphere", according to the ideology, is the private realm of domestic life, child-rearing, housekeeping, and religious education. The separate spheres ideology presumes that women and men are inherently different and that distinctive gender roles are natural.

Contagious Diseases Act (735)
Anti- Prostitution & Anti-STD initiatives of the middle class aimed at the working class.

Section 4
Charles Darwin- a scientific amateur born into an upper-middle class family, he studied theology at Cambridge but was interested in geology and biology. At age 22, he was appointed as a naturalist to study South American plants and animals on the H.M.S. Beagle. He was able to study island species that were virtually untouched by external influence and compare them to species on the mainland. With this information, he came up with the theory of natural selection, and presented it in 1859 (he was 50 now) in his On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. He showed that specific “variants” were partly responsible for enabling a specific organism to be “more fit” than another, allowing the variant organism to survive and reproduce, and the organism without to die and become extinct. He later applied natural selection to humans in The Descent of Man in 1871.

Natural Selection
Darwin’s contribution to the concept of Evolution. Natural Selection is the mechanism by which species evolve over time.

Social Darwinism-
Social Darwinism is taking Darwin’s theory applying to areas outside of Biology (where it actually was intended to go) It’s major proponent was Herbert Spencer who viewed society as an organism evolving (the fit survive, the weak decline). According to this theory, individuals who die tragically shouldn’t be aided, because their deaths are beneficial to society as a whole. This concept was also applied to business (strong companies prosper, weak ones fall) and even nations. Racism was also strengthened by the application of this theory.

Herbert Spencer- Social Darwinism. 
He was British philosopher who argued that societies were organisms that evolved through time from a struggle with their environment. The progress came from the “struggle for survival” as the “fit” individual advanced while the weaker declined.
Used to justify the economic stratification. In capitalistic societies, the fit become rich and the weak become poor. Pseudo-scientific justification for laissez-faire.

Thomas Huxley
“Darwin’s Bulldog” Famous supporter/lecturer for Darwin’s discovery. Had a serious of famous debates in which he defended Evolution against Archbishop Willburforce. However, he opposed Social Darwinism.

Idea created by Thomas Huxley to avoid the term Atheist. Gnostic means truth. “A” means no or not.
When asked if he believed in God, Huxley would respond that he didn’t know if there was one or not.
Huxley: “It simply means that a man shall not say he knows or believes that which he has no scientific grounds for professing to know or believe.”

Charles Dickens- Realism. Victorian novelists His realistic novels focused on the lower and middle classes in Britain’s early industrial age. His descriptions of the urban poor and brutalization of human life were vividly realistic and did much to weaken the belief in laissez faire among liberals.

Chapter 26


an intellectual who glorified the irrational. He believed that the “slave morality” of Christianity had obliterated the human impulse for life and had crushed the human will. He thought that in order to renew society, the fact that “God is dead” had to be recognized. He believed that the void of God made it possible to create a higher kind of being called the “superman”. These superior intellectuals must free themselves from the ordinary thinking of the masses and create their own values to lead the masses. Nietzsche rejected political democracy, social reform, and universal suffrage.

Sigmund Freud- 
a Viennese doctor who put forth a series of theories that undermined optimism about the rational nature of the human mind. His ideas were published in 1900 and became known as psychoanalysis. According to Freud, human behavior was strongly determined by repressed, unconscious drives (not an enlightened rational calculator). He relied on hypnosis and dreams to explore the contents of the unconscious.

Psychoanalysis- (Freud, modern rejection of Enlightenment model of rational behavior)
based on Freud’s major ideas, published in his The Interpretation of Dreams. Freud believed that human behavior was strongly determined by repressed, unconscious drives. He relied on hypnosis and dreams to explore the contents of the unconscious. He theorized that there were three inner forces drove human’s- the id (unconscious pleasure drive), the ego (the coordinator of the inner life, governed by reality and reason) and the superego (conscience, represented inhibitions and moral values imposed upon people, it forced the ego to curb the unsatisfactory drives of the id). He thought that repression of emotions (especially sexual ones) started very young, and if a psychotherapist could retrace the chain of repression of a patient all the way back to its childhood origins and make the conscious mind aware of the unconscious and its repressed contents, the patient’s psychic conflict would be resolved.
Id / Ego / SuperEgo
They are the three parts of the mind defined by Sigmund Freud. According to this model, the instinctual desires are the "id"; the rational/ realistic part of the psyche is the "ego," and the critical and moralizing function the "super-ego."

Unconscious mind
Consciousness, in Freud's view was a relatively thin perceptual aspect of the mind, whereas the subconscious was that underlying function of the brain. The unconscious was considered by Freud a force of will influenced by human drive and yet operating well below the perceptual conscious mind. For Freud, the unconscious is the storehouse of instinctual desires, needs, and psychic actions. While past thoughts and memories may be deleted from immediate consciousness, they direct the thoughts and feelings of the individual from the realm of the unconscious.

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