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Saturday, December 08, 2018

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Adams


ancien regime (the old order):
a catchphrase used by historians to refer to Europe before 1789. It’s the world that the enlightenment thinkers opposed. It is associated with arbitrary monarchy, lack of rights, etc.
The French Revolution attempted to eradicate the Ancient Regime.

Louis XVI:
the King of France during the French Revolution;
= Calls the Estates General in order to modernize tax code
= Limited Monarch in the new revolutionary government. Privately, he did not support the revolution, but was a “prisoner” in Paris and had to go along with it publically.
= Tried to flee Paris, was recognized and captured. He is now a true prisoner.
He was beheaded by a vote of the radical National Convention dominated by the Mountain (Jacobins).


Marie Antoinette:
Wife of Louis XVI. Became a symbol of the decadent aristocracy for the revolutionary masses: “Let them eat cake.” Eventually executed by Robespierre’s Jacobins

Estates General: the French parliamentary body that had not met since 1614 and was called by Louis XVI because of the country’s debt;
Divided France into Three Legal Estates (categories): clergy, nobility, and everyone else.
These medieval Estates did not match the new social classes that had developed during the 1600s & 1700s.

Third Estate:
the estate in the Estates General consisting of 97% of the population and made up of all people who were not clergy or nobility (bourgeoisie, skilled workers, unskilled workers, and peasants were all legally equivalent)

Cahiers de doleances:
In a last ditch effort to fix a failing country, Louis XVI had the people of France make a List of Grievances that each community was to present for the King & the Estates General
Significance: Revolutions occur in times of rising expectation.

Tennis Court Oath:
Oath taken by the Third Estate to become the National Assembly and to write a constitution for France. Beginning of the Revolution!!!

National Assembly:
The Third Estate invites the other 2 Estates to join it and call themselves the National Assembly. A symbolic gesture. “We are not divided into Estates, this political group is an assembly of the entire nation.” The National Assembly then starts to create the new government (limited monarchy). It will become the Legislative Assembly when the limited monarchy is created

Great Fear:
Peasant Uprisings against the old order in the summer of 1789.
Based on their fear that the country was going to be invaded by foreign powers that would crush the revolution. . . and a desire to right injustices done to them by the nobility.
Demonstrates that 1) all classes were participating 2) it’s gonna get violent

The Bastille:
- A prison/arsenal in Paris. It became a symbol of repression and the old order.
- a mob in Paris overran and took it over on 7/14/1789 (while the bourgeoisie was meeting in the Estates-General. ) It was the major contribution of the Petty bourgeoisie and urban workers to the revolution. This street violence occurred while the bourgeoisie was worried about counter-revolution destroying their work.

7/14/89 :
Bastille Day.


Versailles:
The King’s palace 20 miles from Paris
The women of Paris marched to Versailles and brought the king back to Paris in '89


Women’s March on Versailles:
march of Parisian women to Versailles because of inflated bread prices. Brings the King back to Paris making him a “prisoner” of the revolution


SECTION 3 (Reforms of Phase 1, 1789-1792)

Civil Constitution of the Clergy:
document issued by the National Assembly ordering that all bishops and priests of the Catholic church be elected and paid by the state and that they must take an oath of allegiance to the Civil Constitution; was outlawed by the Pope and caused turmoil in the church and therefore in the lives of Catholic French citizens. Many priests, who had previously supported the revolution, refused to take the oath and were declared “Refractory” Clergy. According to the AP FRAMEWORK: The Nationalization of the Catholic Church.


Assignats
Paper Money created by the new revolutionary government.
Issued on the value of the lands confiscated from the Church. The money lost value and led to massive inflation. Inflation hurts the poor disproportionately
Notice: Land was not given to the poor. Land was used by the new government to print money.


The Constitution of 1791
The first government created during the French Revolution.
It created a Limited Monarchy (like England’s) which focused on the rights of people
It represented the desires of the Bourgeoisie elements of the revolution.

Active Citizens:
Citizens who have rights and the vote, and pay taxes.
Rationale for only allowing the wealthy to vote: "Stake in Society" theory. Only those with something to lose should have a say in the government.
This distinction (Active vs Passive Citizen) was created in the Constitution of 1791

Passive Citizens:
Citizens who have all of the rights of Frenchmen; HOWEVER, since they don't pay much in taxes, are not given a vote (or a say in society)
This distinction (Active vs Passive Citizen) was created in the Constitution of 1791
Wow, Brentwood just put the screwgie on Antioch. Better watch Old Hickory Blvd for Trucks with guns. : )


Guild (CW):
kinda like a combination Labor Union and Business Association. Craftsmen (blacksmiths, brewers, etc) would combine into a guild and determine such issues as prices, product quality, training, etc. A Guild was also like a Brentwood Mega-Church in that it was the social center for that particular group AND would take care of members who needed help (provided a social safety net in bad times). Guilds were THE basic structure of the economy in europe from the middle ages to about 1800.
Adam Smith and the supporters of Free Markets pointed out that Guild restrict workers from making decisions about quality/pricing/etc. and cause prices to be artificially higher than in a free market. THAT is why the first phase of the revolution abolished them. In order to help (free) workers to get rich.
HOWEVER, guilds also were the social safety net for workers in bad times. oops

Austria and Prussia:
countries who opposed the Revolution in France and created the Declaration of Phillnitz which invited other countries to fight the Revolution. (because each feared the revolution would spill over into their countries). Some French revolutionaries felt that a war against these enemies would generate patriotism and support for the government. Unfortunately, France’s war against these countries is going to bring down the Limited Monarchy.

Levee en masse
the conscription (drafting) of French Citizens to create a People’s army (army of the masses) that was to fight against the Austrian/English army during the more radical phase of the Revolution. Many of these people were fighting for “France” or “the Revolution.” Other armies at the time/history consists of conscripts or mercenaries.


Paris:
the heart of the French Revolution. The most revolutionary area in France. A lot of the country-side still supported the Monarchy. (and to this day is more conservative than Paris)

The Convention
The Government during the radical phase of the revolution. It governed France during the Republic (1792-1795). In 1792, when radicals demanded the abolition of the monarchy, the Legislative Assembly called for the creation of a "national convention" which should draw up a new constitution. The Convention abolished the monarchy on its second day. The Convention lasted for three years and ruled France during the Radical phase of the revolution (and Reign of Terror)
The Republic:
Generally, any form of government that does not have a monarchy.
The type of government created by the radical revolutionaries after arresting ('92) & beheading Louis XVI ('93). The French Republic will replace the limited monarchy.


Committee of Public Safety
the de facto government of France during the Reign of Terror, created by the National Convention. It was formed under war conditions and with national survival seemingly at stake. The committee executed thousands of “enemies” under the pretext of being a supporter of monarchy or against the revolution.
.

Sans-Culottes (culottes are knee breeches): literally, ‘without knee-breeches’
The lower-middle class (Artisan / Petty Bourgeoisie) radicals during the French Revolution. They are more radical, have a new sense of class identity, and are taking to the streets. The sans culottes are the social group that the Jacobin Clubs claim to speak for.

Jacobins:
Political Clubs in Paris. Radical republicans, claiming to represent the interests of the sans-culottes. The Mountain AND Girondins had been members of the Jacobin Clubs.

Girondins
were a RADICAL political faction in the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention. (but less radical than The Mountain). One historian pointed out that Girondins were the radical faction in the Legislative Assembly, but the conservative faction in the Convention. Girondins opposed executing the King and were supporters of the disastrous war with Austria. Eventually lost power to the MORE radical faction of Jacobins (the Mountain).

The Mountain:
Most Radical political faction in the Convention. Became fierce critics of the Girondins. The Mountain & Jacobins will eventually become synonymous. Claimed to represent the aims of the Sans-culottes.

The Plain:
In the French Revolution, the moderate deputies in the National Convention. They formed the majority of the assembly's members and were essential to the passage of any measures. Led by Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyes, the Plain initially voted with the moderate Girondins but later joined the Mountain in voting for the execution of Louis XVI. In 1794 they helped overthrow Robespierre and other extreme Jacobins.


Republic of Virtue
Robespierre’s desire to reshape France based on the idea of civic virtue from the writings of Rousseau. He attempted to created a secular version of what Cromwell attempted in England. Most of France was not on board with his vision of Virtue (just as most Englishmen were not on board with Cromwell). Who wants to be good all of the time??

Cult of Supreme Being
was a form of deism devised by Robespierre, intended to become the state religion after the French Revolution. The cult represents part of the "de-Christianization" of French society during the Revolution, in that Robespierre sought to move beyond simple deism to a new and, in his view, more rational devotion to God. Robespierre's proclamation of the cult as the new state religion in 1794 was one of the factors that prompted the Thermidorian Reaction, which ended this new religion.


Reign of Terror
was a period of violence that occurred for a year incited by conflict between rival political factions ( the Girondins and the Jacobins) and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution." Was led by the Committee of Public Safety dominated by Robespierre, in order to suppress internal counter-revolutionary activities The Terror's leaders exercised broad dictatorial powers and used them to instigate mass executions and political purges. The repression reached a peak in June and July 1794.
Side note: “Terror” is not a negative word in this case. Robespierre uses it proudly to explain how the Revolutionary Government must use Terror to make the Old Order and Enemies tremble before the will of the people.

Guillotine
a device used for carrying out executions by decapitation during the Reign of Terror. It was created as a humane and rational way to execute enemies of the revolution.

Jean-Paul Marat:
Famous Jacobin killed in his bathtub by a Girondin.
His execution is used to justify The Terror. “We’ve got enemies of the revolution living in our midst!! We must root them out!”
Significance: Governments will often use a real tragedy to whip up people’s fear, and then use that fear to get people to go along with anything the government proposes for the safety of the
people. (this is the first of many examples next semester)


Danton:
A leader of the Jacobins & colleague of Robespierre on the Committee of Public Safety. Eventually will be labeled an “enemy of the revolution” and executed during the Reign of Terror. His execution scared everyone, since it was obvious to all that (if HE could be executed) anyone could be labeled an “enemy.” It was shortly after his death that a group got the guts to go after Robespierre and end The Terror.

Thermidorian Reaction
a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. It was triggered by a vote of the Committee of Public Safety to execute Robespierre and several other leading members of the Terror. This ended the most radical phase of the French Revolution. The name refers to 9 Thermidor Year II (27 July 1794), the date according to the French Revolutionary Calendar when this revolt occurred.

The Directory
was a body of five Directors that held executive power in France following the Convention and preceding Napoleon. The period of this regime (November 1795 until November 1799), constitutes a return to a more moderate/calm phase of the revolution.

Section 4B
Phase III
Thermidorian Reaction
a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. It was triggered by a vote of the Committee of Public Safety to execute Robespierre and several other leading members of the Terror. This ended the most radical phase of the French Revolution. The name refers to 9 Thermidor Year II (27 July 1794), the date according to the French Revolutionary Calendar when this revolt occurred.


The Directory
was a body of five Directors that held executive power in France following the Convention and preceding Napoleon. The period of this regime (November 1795 until November 1799), constitutes a return to a more moderate/calm phase of the revolution.

Coup d’etat:
any military overthrow of a government. Specifically, how Napoleon took control in 1799.


Section 5
Napoleon
Napoleon Bonaparte 1799-1815

French Empire (1804 – 14)

Code Napoleon

Continental System:
The Economic System that napoleon enforced on Europe in order to stick it to the British. The Brits can’t do business on the continent. The Brits retaliate with a blockade around the continent. Everybody loses. It fails.

The Concordat

Trafalgar
Famous naval battle in which England defeated the French Navy. It ended Napoleon’s hope for invading England. Established England as ‘the shark’

Austerlitz
Sweeping victory for napoleon against the coalition of Austria, Russia, & England.
Establishes His dominance of the Continent. he’s the “the tiger’ to England’s “shark


Peninsular War
Guerilla war in Spain. (French occupying troops vs Spanish insurgency) Napoleon had
difficulties eradicating the resistance. It sapped his time and energy,

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