« My 2 Favorite Books on WWI | Main | Cold War Terms here! »

Thursday, March 30, 2017



Chapter 26 Terms (mixed together)

John Maynard Keynes
- Economist who advocated government intervention in the economy.
A British economist who contradicted the traditional view that depressions should be left to work themselves out through the self-regulatory mechanisms of a free economy. Instead Keynes argued that unemployment stemmed from a decline in demand, and that demand could be increased by Government Spending (public works, financed, if necessary, through deficit spending) to stimulate production. (provided a sound economic argument against laissez-faire, saying that governments should spend tax money to get out of depressions).

German Territory demilitarized by the Treaty of Versailles (map on 881)
The German government could not put troops in this part of Germany.

The Weimar Republic
- the German democratic state created after the fall of the imperial government at the end of WWI. Hindenburg served as president. The young Republic suffered from uprisings and attacks from both the right and left. Another of its problems was its inability to change the basic structure of Germany (many institutions such as the army operated as states within a state). The Weimar government also faced ridiculous inflation and a Great Depression in which 4.4 million people became unemployed. The political, economic, and social problems of the Weimar Republic proved an environment in which Hitler and the Nazis were able to rise to power.

Industrial area of Germany and the location of early tension between France & Germany. In the early-20s France (yes, France) was the only country willing to enforce the Treaty of Versailles. In an effort to get tough on Germany, France invaded the Ruhr, and the German government responded by calling for a General Strike among German workers to protest. This crisis caused the hyperinflation

Dawes Plan
- U.S. plan easing the post-war burden of Germany
the new plan for German reparations named for the American banker who chaired the commission, it reduced reparations and stabilized Germany’s payments on the basis of its ability to pay. It also granted a $200 million loan for German recovery, opening the door to heavy American investments in Europe that helped create an era of European prosperity up until1929.

Kellogg-Briand Pact - Treaty outlawing war!!!
Drafted by American secretary Kellogg and French foreign minister Briand, 63 nations eventually agreed to the pact in which they pledged “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy.” However, nothing was said about what would be done if anyone violated the treaty.

Massive inflation in Germany in the early 1920’s. In 1914, 4.2 marks equaled $1 (the price of a loaf of bread). On November 1, 1923, it would have cost 130 billion marks. By the end of November, the number reached 4.2 trillion marks. If you retired with 1 million marks in 1914, you could buy .000000238095 of a loaf of bread with it (not very much) at the end of November 1923. Destroyed faith in money, economics and the democracies unable to fight it.

Great Depression (Intellectual impact of . . . )
Collapse of the world economy in the late 20 and 30s. Unemployment in the western democracies was between 25-30%.
1. Showed the powerless of liberal democratic governments in dealing with the crisis. It forced many nations to begin taking actions (violating laissez faire) to fix the economies.
2. This collapse of capitalism led to renewed interest in Marxist doctrines (Marx had predicted that capitalism would destroy itself). Also communism took on new popularity with workers and intellectuals
3. the crisis increased the attractiveness of simplistic dictatorial solutions such as fascism and communism.

Economic Bubble
A “bubble” occurs when an asset (houses, stocks, webkinz) becomes wildly overpriced. This occurs because people begin purchasing it (not to use or enjoy) but to Resale to a “bigger sucker”
I’ll pay 1 million for a crappy house because I know I can sell it to a bigger sucker willing to pay 1.5 million for it. At some point, people wake up and realize “why am I spending 1.5 million for a 2 bedroom house.” At that point, everyone tries to sell, no one is buying, and prices plummet. People lose a lot of cash. A stock market bubble (and crash) caused the Depression.

F. D. Roosevelt’s New Deal
- President who began the welfare state in the U.S.
Beat Hoover in an electoral landslide in 1932. Roosevelt created a new economic policy of government intervention known as the New Deal (the New Deal created a variety of new agencies designed to bring “relief, recovery, and reform” and later a program of public works and the Social Security Act). The Roosevelt administration was responsible for the social legislation that moved away from laissez-faire and began the American welfare state.

The Popular Front
French coalition of all left-wing parties created in 1935. Its purpose was to support the 3rd Republic and press for social reform. It was created by the left-wing fear of Hitler’s far-right popularity/power. In ’36 the Socialist (Popular Front) were the largest party in France for the first time ever.

Leon Blum
First socialist premier of the French 3rd Republic (1936-1939)
As a social-democrat, Blum had to balance between the more radical elements to his left and the more conservative industrialists to his right. Neither side was happy with his center-left government and many people lost faith in the French 3rd Republic (on both sides of the political spectrum).

Posted by: Adams | Wednesday, March 30, 2016 at 12:01 PM

Euro gnome
Hey mr Adams, what is the quiz over tomorrow

Posted by: Euro gnome | Wednesday, March 30, 2016 at 07:26 PM

1. There is only ONE EuroGnome!!
2. Sections of chapter 26
3. Mainly terms. Be able to write that name

Posted by: EuroGnome | Wednesday, March 30, 2016 at 07:56 PM

Euro Gnome 2: 2 Euro 2 Gnome
Is there really only one?

Posted by: Euro Gnome 2: 2 Euro 2 Gnome | Thursday, March 31, 2016 at 07:00 AM

CHAPTER 2: Stalin!
Right Bolsheviks vs. Left Bolsheviks (but ALL Bolsheviks are on the political Left)
- Left Bolsheviks (led by Trotsky) wanted to end the NEP and launch Russia on the path of rapid industrialization, primarily at the expense of the peasantry. They wanted to carry the revolution on, believing that the survival of the Russian Revolution ultimately depended on the spread of communism abroad. The Right Bolsheviks rejected the cause of world revolution and wanted to instead focus on the construction of a socialist state in Russia. They believed that too rapid industrialization would worsen the living standards of the Soviet peasantry. This group also favored a continuation of Lenin’s NEP

Leon Trotsky-
led the Left of the Politburo, he wanted to end the NEP and launch Russia on the path of rapid industrialization, primarily at the expense of the peasantry. The Left Bolsheviks wanted to carry the revolution on, believing that the survival of the Russian Revolution ultimately depended on the spread of communism abroad. Trotsky was expelled from the Communist party in 1927 (by Stalin) and eventually made his way to Mexico where he was murdered in 1940 (on Stalin’s orders).

Joseph Stalin-
joined the Bolsheviks in 1903 and held the dull job of party general secretary, which turned out to be the most important in the party hierarchy. Using his post of party general secretary, Stalin made some 10,000 secretary appointments of trusted followers to key positions, and began to gain complete control of the Communist Party. By 1929 he succeeded in eliminating the Old Bolsheviks of the revolutionary era from the Politburo and established a very powerful dictatorship.

5 Year Plan-
Stalin’s economic plan during the early 1930s in which Russia would transform from an agricultural country into an industrial state virtually overnight. The plan emphasized maximum production of capital goods and armaments. It was very successful, quadrupling the production of heavy machinery and doubling oil production. Collectivization was not as successful.

Stalin’s plan to modernize Soviet agriculture. The Soviet government relocated peasants onto collective farms, repossessing the Kulaks’ excess food (so they couldn’t sell and make a profit from it) in order to eliminate the private farms. Stalin inaugurated his policy of collectivization of agriculture even before his 5 year plan. One of its major aims was to stimulate industrial growth through profits from the rural economy. Initially, Stalin planned to collectivize only the wealthier kulaks, but strong resistance from peasants led him to step up the program. By 1934 Russia’s 26 million family farms were collectivized into 250,000 units. This was done at the cost of millions of lives that starved due to the resulting “artificially created famine”.

a class of well-to-do peasant proprietors who employed wage labor (which appalled the Bolsheviks). 1 out of 13 peasant households was kulak. These were the “enemy” in Stalin’s war against the peasants during collectivization.

The Great Purge-
To achieve his goals of rapid industrialization, Stalin needed to strengthen his party bureaucracy. Those who resisted were sent to forced labor camps in Siberia. Stalin’s desire for sole control of decision making led to purges of the Old Bolsheviks. Between 1936 and 1938 the most prominent Old Bolsheviks were put on trial and condemned to death. Also, Stalin purged army officers, diplomats, union officials, party members, intellectuals, and numerous ordinary citizens. 8 million Russians were arrested; millions were sent to Siberian forced labor camps, from which they never returned.

Sergei Kirov
- a Bolshevik party member whose assassination was used by Stalin to justify the Great Purge (much like Marat’s assassination for the Reign of Terror during the French Revolution).

The Ukraine
- victim of Stalin’s Terror Famine
the breadbasket of the Soviet Union, Stalin forced a famine here, starving millions (this was known as the Terror Famine)

Terror Famine-
Stalin’s artificially created famine imposed on the Ukraine, killing millions

Chapter 4: MUSSOLINI

Benito Mussolini-
(in 1919) laid the foundations for Fascism ( the Fascio di Combattimento).
After WWI, the Italian parliament seemed incapable of governing Italy. The three major parties (the socialists, liberals, and conservative Catholic Democrats) were unable to form a governmental coalition. The Socialists spoke of the need for revolution, alarming conservatives (who associated them with Bolsheviks) and the propertied classes. Thousands of industrial and agricultural strikes created a climate of class warfare and continual violence. Mussolini capitalized on this fear of communism and quickly shifted from leftist to rightist politics to appeal to the middle-class industrialists who feared working class agitation and large landowners who objected to the agricultural strikes. He realized that anticommunism, antistrike activity, and nationalist rhetoric combined with the use of brute force could help him obtain what had eluded him in free elections. Mussolini and his Black Shirts took up violent tactics which they believed would lead to political victory, deliberately creating conditions of disorder knowing that Fascism would flourish in such an environment. Once he gained power with his March On Rome bluff, he gained more power in parliament and the Fascist party grew in popularity. When the socialist deputy was assassinated by the Fascists, many predicted Mussolini would resign. He instead moved for a full dictatorship, gaining it in 1926.

General / Modern Usage: Extreme Right-wing beliefs of super-nationalism, militarism, and totalitarianism.
Specifically: Party begun by Mussolini that gained power by capitalizing on the propertied class’s fear of communism. Mussolini and his black shirts used terrorist tactics that they believed would eventually lead to political victory, deliberately creating conditions of disorder knowing that fascism would flourish in such an environment. Fascists construed themselves as the party of order, supported mostly by the middle and upper classes; white-collar workers, professionals and civil servants, landowners, merchants and artisans, and students made up almost 60% of the Fascist Party. Fascism was attractive because of the middle-class’s fear of socialism, communist revolution, and disorder.

iL Duce- Nickname for Mussolini. “The Leader”

“He made the trains run on time”-
Catchphrase to show that fascism was a system that worked for Italy and was efficient. Belief that Mussolini had turned the dilapidated Italian railway system into one that was the envy of Europe. Get it? Trains are a metaphor for Italy. : )
Many people saw Mussolini as a man who brought order to chaotic Italy and this was a shorthand way of admitting it. .

Black Shirts
- Mussolini’s band of armed Fascists also called squadristi that was used to break up strikes by trade unionists, socialist workers, and peasant leagues by using force. It became common in Europe for political parties to have paramilitary arms to 1) protect them from other parties and 2) harass other political parties. By 1921 the black shirts numbered 200,000, attracting WWI veterans and students with the opportunity to use unrestrained violence and wear snappy uniforms.

March on Rome 1922- The Mythical taking of power by Mussolini
When Mussolini and the Fascists threatened to march on Rome in order to seize power in 1922. This was in reality no more than a bluff to frighten the government into giving them power. The bluff worked, and the government capitulated on October 29, 1922 when King Victor Emmanuel III made Mussolini prime minister of Italy. 24 hours later, black shirts were allowed to march into Rome in order to create the illusion that they had gained power by force after a civil war.

Lateran Accords-
Agreement between Fascist Italy and the papacy in which 109 acres within Rome, known as
Vatican City, would be given to the papacy in return for its recognition of the Italian state. It also guaranteed the church a large grant of money and recognized Catholicism as the “sole religion of the state”. In return, the Catholic Church urged Italians to support the Fascist regime



Can you post the Hitler and WWII terms?


Chapter 5: Hitler

NSDAP (Nazi Party)
- the National Socialist German Worker’s Party
headed by Hitler (he changed the name from The German Worker’s Party). Originally, they were just one of a many right-wing extreme nationalist parties in Munich. However, Hitler turned the party into a mass political movement with flags, party badges, uniforms, its own newspaper, and its own police force (the SA) and it eventually became, by 1923, the strongest of such parties. After Hitler was released from prison (for the failed Beer Hall Putsch) he realized that the Weimar government must be overtaken by constitutional means, he regained control of the party and expanded its membership (many of the members young) greatly. By 1929 it had a national party organization, and by 1932 was the largest party in the Reichstag.

Adolf Hitler
- Austrian leader of the German rightist Nazi party who emerged in 1923 and in 10 years had taken over complete power. Increasingly, the right-wing elites of Germany came to see Hitler as the man with the mass support to establish a right-wing authoritarian regime that would save Germany from Communism. These elites thought that they could control Hitler but underestimated his abilities. Under pressure from these elites, President Hindenburg agreed to allow Hitler to become chancellor (on Jan 30, 1933) and to form a new government, but with supposed safeguards that were meant to ‘corner him within two months’. Within those two months Hitler had laid the foundations for the Nazi’s complete control over Germany. After the Reichstag fire, he gained government emergency powers allowing the Nazis to arrest and imprison anyone without redress. He also sought to pass the Enabling Act which would empower the government to dispense with constitutional forms for four years while it issued laws that would deal with the country’s problems. He needed 2/3 of the Reichstag to pass it, and only the Social Democrats opposed it. It passed; making Hitler a virtual dictator appointed by the parliamentary body itself (he no longer needed the Reichstag or President Hindenburg). As a result of the Night of Long Knives and the death of Hindenburg on August 2, 1934, the office of Reich president was abolished and Hitler became the sole ruler of Germany. Public officials and soldiers were required to take a personal oath of loyalty to Hitler as the “Fuhrer of the German Reich and people.” On August 9, he held a plebiscite in which 85% of the people indicated their approval of the new order; the Third Reich.

SA (storm troopers, brown shirts)
- the Nazi party’s paramilitary group of uniformed thugs. The SA was used to defend the party in meeting halls and to break up the meetings of other parties. It added an element of force and terror to the growing Nazi movement. After Hitler was made Chancellor in 1933, he and Goring (Minister of the Interior) were able to purge the German police of non-Nazis and establish an auxiliary police force composed of SA members, thus legitimizing Nazi terror.
These are the original “Nazis” and are largely ignored by modern American TV, movies, video games. They dressed in frumpy brown outfits with baseball caps. Not very scary IMHO.

Beer Hall Putsch
- Hitler’s failed attempt to get power by force (1923)
Nazis and other right-wing Bavarian leaders decided to march on Berlin in 1923 to overthrow the Weimar Republic, which was on the verge of collapse. The Nazi’s fellow conspirators reneged, but Hitler and the Nazis decided to stage an armed uprising in Munich by themselves on November 8. The uprising was quickly crushed and Hitler was arrested, tried for treason, and sentenced to 5 years in prison (a light sentence from sympathetic right-wing judges). This failure didn’t discourage him, but instead reinforced his faith in himself and in his mission.

Mein Kampf - Hitler’s autobiography written from prison.
It showed his ideology of extreme German nationalism, virulent anti-Semitism, and vicious anticommunism linked together by a Social Darwinian theory of struggle that stresses the right of superior nations to Lebensraum (living space) through expansion and the right of the superior individuals to secure authoritarian leadership over the masses.

“The stab in the back”
- Hitler’s big lie that defeat came by domestic (not foreign) means.
the myth that Germany was winning the war before domestic liberal socialists ruined it Liberals/Bolsheviks then signed the hated Treaty of Versailles, sending Germany into chaos.

Chancellor 1933
- Hitler’s position in the government that was similar to a Prime Minister
President Hindenburg (under pressure from right-wing elites) allowed Hitler to become Chancellor and to form a new government. Safeguards were placed on Hitler to keep him under control but they proved ineffective.

Reichstag fire-
a fire that broke out in the Reichstag on Feb 27 of 1933, supposedly set by the Communists but possibly by the Nazis themselves. Hitler convinced President Hindenburg to issue a decree giving the government emergency powers, suspending all basic rights of citizens for the full duration of the emergency, enabling the Nazis to arrest and imprison the enemies (anyone) without redress.

Joseph Goebbels-
the propaganda minister of Nazi Germany. He believed that mass media (film, radio, etc.) was one of the “most modern and scientific means of influencing the masses

SS- (Schutzstaffel)
originally created as Hitler’s personal bodyguard; it was headed by Himmler and came to control all of the regular and secret police forces. Himmler and the SS functioned on the basis of two principles: terror and ideology. Terror included repression and murder: the secret police, criminal police, concentration camps, and later the execution squads and death camps for the extermination of the Jews. SS members, who constituted a carefully chosen elite, were thoroughly indoctrinated in racial ideology. When you picture NAZI in movies and TV it is actually the SS: the guys in shiny black uniforms with skulls on their lapels.

Title that Hitler assumed once the President (Hindenburg) died.
Hitler required all public officials and soldiers to take a personal oath of loyalty to Hitler as the
“Fuhrer of the German Reich and people” (Hitler’s title of emperor). It was a title and not an official position in the government

Ernst Röhm- Head of the SA and longtime party member
He was one of the original Nazis and had been with Hitler from the beginning.
However, by the early 1930s he was openly criticizing Hitler and spoke of the need for a “second revolution” and the replacement of the regular army by the SA. Hitler had him killed on June 30, 1934 along with a number of other SA leaders (the night of long knives) in return for the army’s support in allowing Hitler to succeed Hindenburg when the president died. The German right (army, industrialists etc) thought Rohm was too dangerous.

Night of Long Knives-
June 30, 1934 . Hitler had Ernst Rohm and a number of other SA leaders killed in return for the army’s support in allowing Hitler to succeed Hindenburg when the President died.

- “Night of shattered glass”.
The assassination of a third secretary in the German embassy in Paris by a young Polish Jew became the occasion for a Nazi-led destructive rampage against the Jews in which synagogues were burned, 7,000 Jewish businesses were destroyed, and at least 100 Jews were killed. Also, 30,000 Jewish males were rounded up and sent to concentration camps. Kristallnacht led to further drastic steps, such as barring Jews from all public buildings and prohibiting them from owning, managing, or working in any retail store. The SS also encouraged Jews to “emigrate from Germany”

The Final Solution

Joseph Goebbels

Leni Riefenstahl


Back Half of Section 4: Lead up to WWII

Lebensraum- “living space”
This doctrine maintained that a nation’s power depended upon the amount and kind of land it occupied. This doctrine is what Hitler used to justify his expansionist policies into eastern Europe

Aryan race- the morthern european "race", who in Hitler’s view were the dominant race of mankind destined to rule Europe and possibly the world. Hitler believed that the leading group of Aryans was threatened from the east by a large mass of inferior peoples, the Slavs, who had learned to use German weapons and technology. He wanted to take over Russia so that its land could be resettled by German peasants, and the Slavic population could be used as slave labor to build the Aryan racial state that would dominate Europe for 1,000 years.

Rome-Berlin Axis
- after Italy’s invasion of Ethiopia and Germany’s support, the two nations drew closer together. In October 1936, Mussolini and Hitler concluded an agreement that recognized their common political and economic interests, and one month later, Mussolini referred publicly to the new Rome-Berlin Axis.

“Better Hitler than Stalin”-
the general European opinion in the 30s was that Stalin was a brutal dictator, and Hitler was just some low class politician with a bad haircut. Hitler may be bad, but he HATES Stalin and serves as a buffer between us and the REAL bad guy - Stalin

On March 7, 1936, Hitler (confident that the Western democracies had no intention of using force to maintain all aspects of the Treaty of Versailles) sent German troops into the demilitarized Rhineland. According the Versailles treaty, the French had the right to use force against any violation of the demilitarized Rhineland. France however would not act without British support, and the British (going with their policy of appeasement) viewed the occupation of German territory by German troops as another reasonable action by a dissatisfied power.

Spanish Civil War- Prelude to WWII
The Civil War between the Spanish Political Left and Political Right. Often characterized as part of a larger struggle of Communism vs Fascism. General Francisco Franco (a fascist) rebelled against the leftist republic government in 1936. Franco wins and maintains a fascist dictatorship in Spain until 1975.

Anschluss- name given to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany.
By threatening Austria with invasion, Hitler coerced the Austrian chancellor into putting Austrian Nazis in charge of the government. The new government promptly invited German troops to enter Austria and assist in maintaining law and order. The next day, March 13, 1938, Austria was formally annexed to Germany. Also, an Austrian vote taken in April showed that a majority supported the annexation.

the mountainous northwestern border area of Czechoslovakia that was home to 3 million ethnic Germans. It also contained Czechoslovakia’s most important frontier defenses and considerable industrial resources as well. Hitler demanded the cession of the Sudetenland to Germany and expressed his willingness to risk “world war” to achieve his objective. War was not necessary as appeasement triumphed once again, and Hitler gained the Sudetenland conflict-free at the Munich Conference.

Neville Chamberlain- Pre-war Prime Minister of Britain. Appeasement.
He was a strong advocate of appeasement and believed that the survival of the British Empire depended upon an accommodation with Germany. Chamberlain had made it known to Hitler in November 1937 that he would not oppose changes in central Europe, provided that they were executed peacefully. After returning from the Munich Conference, Chamberlain boasted that the Munich agreement meant “peace for our time.” Hitler had promised Chamberlain that he had made his last demand; all other European problems could be settled by negotiation. Like many German politicians, Chamberlain had believed Hitler’s assurances.

Munich Conference-
an agreement that essentially met all of Hitler’s demands. German troops were allowed to occupy the Sudetenland as the Czechs, abandoned by their Western allies, stood by helplessly. The Munich Conference was the high point of Western appeasement of Hitler.
Today, Munich is a code word for being weak against an enemy.

Polish Corridor-
Poland’s access to the sea at the port at Danzig. (but separated a section from Germany).
Hitler demanded the return of Danzig (which had been made a free city by the Treaty of Versailles to serve as a seaport for Poland) to Germany. In response, Britain offered to protect Poland in the event of war. At the same time France and Britain realized that only the Soviet Union was powerful enough to help contain Nazi aggression and began political and military negotiations with Stalin and the Soviets. However, the West’s distrust of Soviet communism made an alliance unlikely.

The comments to this entry are closed.