« Marx | Main | A Short Week »

Wednesday, February 08, 2017




Napoleon III
(President of 2nd Republic, Emperor of Second Empire, Ousted in Franco-Prussian War)

As president of the Second Republic, he used liberal and nationalistic forces to bolster his power. He became popular by supporting universal male suffrage, and was voted emperor of France in 1852. He took great interest in public opinion. He improved the economy and reconstructed Paris. The Franco-Prussian war resulted in Napoleon’s capture and the collapse of the Second French Empire.

Second Empire (France) 1852-70
Louis Napoleon became Napoleon III, Emperor of the French by a plebiscite in 1852. The Second Republic became the Second Empire. The French created an Authoritarian State (albeit a well run one) through universal male suffrage.

Paris (rebuilt by Napoleon III)
Centerpiece of Napoleon’s improvement of France. Created a “modern” city with a new public water supply, and gaslights. The street design made it easier for troops to move rapidly through the city in the event of revolts

Franco-Prussian War
(See the German Terms)

Third Republic 1870 +

Government for France imposed by Bismarck after the disastrous defeat in the Franco-Prussian War.

Dreyfus Affair (The OJ case for France)
The most divisive event in the 3rd Republic. Dreyfus was a Jewish captain in the French army. In 1895, a secret military court found him guilty of selling army secrets and condemned him to life in prison. During his trial, right-wing mobs yelled “Death to the Jews.” Later it was discovered that Dreyfus was innocent, and he was pardoned in 1899. This series of events split France for several years and showed the animosity between Left and Right.

Émile Zola & J’Accuse
Zola is mainly known for publishing a newspaper article entitled J’Accuse (I accuse) in which he accused the French army of forging the evidence that convicted Dreyfus and deliberately suppressing evidence that would vindicate him.

ITALY Section 3

Kingdom of Italy 1861-
The Kingdom of Italy was first proclaimed after the joining of the expanded kingdom of Piedmont with Garibaldi’s southern Italian states in 1861. The only remaining lands left to be gained were Venetia (Austrian controlled) and Rome (French protected) Through a series of wars, the unification was completed in 1870 when Rome became the new capital of Italy. (Trick question: Kingdom of Italy created in 1861, Italian peninsula unified in 1870)

Under the leadership of Cavour it led the unification of Italy. Expanded it’s power to became the Kingdom of Italy in 1861.

Architect of Italian unification a liberal-minded nobleman who was named prime minister of Piedmont in 1852 by Emmanuel II. Cavour was a moderate who favored constitutional government. He used France to oust Austria from northern Italy. This allowed him to unite much of northern Italy under the rule of Piedmont and in 1861 combined Piedmont with Garibaldi’s southern section, forming the Kingdom of Italy.

Victor Emanuel II First King of Italy.
Previously had been King of Piedmont with Cavour as his Prime Minister
Should have changed his title to King Victor Emanuel I of Italy, but kept his number (II) of the Kingdom of Piedmont. This caused a bit of backlash among Italians.

Mazzini’s Liberal & nationalistic movement for a unified Italy (a republic free from foreign control). His liberal nationalism failed in 1848, and Italy was eventually unified by the actions of Cavour’s more conservative Piedmont. (Liberals support republics, not monarchies) (sounds like Germany doesn’t it?)

Garibaldi – Italian unification!
Italian nationalist. His Red Shirts, using guerrilla warfare, helped southern Italy gain independence. Began a victorious /popular march up the Italian peninsula. (At the same time that Cavour was liberating northern Italy). Garibaldi didn’t push to gain control of all of Italy, fearing the split it would cause, so he instead gave his southern portion to Cavour. Thus Italy was created in 1861

Romantic Republicanism
The ineffective approach to unification of Italy. This approach by secret societies and liberals failed to unify Italy in 1830 and 1848.

Papal States-
Area in central Italy governed by Rome & the pope. The area of danger between Cavour and Garibaldi

Red Shirts- Garibaldi’s nationalist volunteers


- the “politics of reality”, of which Bismarck, the “ultimate realist”, was the foremost 19th century practitioner.
Mr Adams’ Real world definition: People tend to use this concept to justify whatever they wish to do when you disagree with them and find their action morally questionable.

Otto Von Bismarck: Creator of modern Germany
Prime minister of Prussia under William I. Often portrayed as the ultimate realist (Realpolitik). Separated nationalism from liberalism and combined it with authoritarian government. Largely ignored parliament. Through war (blood & Iron) created the Second German Empire in 1871. Through his leadership Germany became the strongest power on the Continent.

King William I (Kaiser Wilhelm I)
First king of a united Germany! was proclaimed Kaiser of the Second German Empire (the first was the Holy Roman Empire) in 1871. Bismarck was his Prime Minister when he had been King of Prussia, and continued in that role when he became King of Germany.

Prussia & Austria
The two rivals were considered by German nationalists as the only two states powerful enough to dominate German affairs. Prussia became the dominate power after the Austro-Prussian War of 1861. Austria’s defeat enabled Bismarck to create Germany by expanding Prussian control.

“Blood & Iron”
- Bismarck’s method for unifying Germany. His method of hardball politics and war was successful and was very different from the failed liberal attempts back in 1848. Germany would be created from above by an authoritarian regime, not a bunch of egg-head intellectuals taking to the streets. “Germany does not look to Prussia’s liberalism but to her power… Not by speeches and majorities will the great questions of the day be decided - that was the mistake of 1848-49 - but by iron and blood.”.

Ems Dispatch
Famous telegram that Bismarck used to goad the French into declaring war on Prussia. Thus France was technically the aggressor. Bismarck edited this telegram to make it appear that the Prussian king had insulted the French minister and then he released it to the French press. Nationalism in France went into hyper-mode.

Franco-Prussian War (1871)-
War between Prussia and France that
1) ended the Second French Empire
2) created the German Empire.
3) gave Italy the opportunity to seize Rome!
Bismarck’s manipulated France into this war with the Ems Dispatch. France was forced to give up the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine. The bitterness over this defeat will have a big impact on France, and the euphoria of victory will have a big impact on Germany.

The German Empire 1871-1918
Created in 1871 by the maneuvering of Bismarck. Although it possessed the appearance of liberal institutions (parliament, Constitution, etc) it possessed none of the substance of liberalism. It was a government dominated by the conservative Military, Junkers, and Monarchy.

Danish War (1864) A & P vs D
This short war was a part of Bismarck’s master plan to exclude Austria from his new Germany. Germany and Austria would administer the newly acquired Schleswig-Holstein.

Austro-Prussian War
Part of Bismarck’s plan to weaken Austria so that he could expand Prussia (create Germany) without Austrian interference. Started over Schleswig-Holstein and was done in 7 weeks. Prussia dominated Austria, weakened it, and made German unification under Prussian dominance possible.

Section 4
Eduard Bernstein Evolutionary Socialism 

- the most prominent Marxist-Revisionist and member of the German Social Democratic Party. He challenged Marxist orthodoxy with his book Evolutionary Socialism in which he argued that some of Marx’s ideas were wrong (such as the capitalist system had not broken down, nor did its demise seem near. And property was becoming more, not less, diffused). He believed that evolution by democratic means (the vote), not revolution, would achieve the desired goal of socialism.

Social Democratic Party (SPD in Germany, SDP in France)

- German political party that followed revolutionary Marxist rhetoric while organizing itself as a mass political party competing in elections for the Reichstag. Once there, SPD delegates worked to enact legislation to improve the condition of the working class. Other SPDs based on the German model were founded in Belgium, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, Poland, Romania, the Netherlands, and Russia. Eventually, it would become less revolutionary and more “revisionary”

Social Democrats 

Becomes a major socialist groups in many countries during this period.
- Germany: industrialization led to a greater expansion for them. By 1912, it became the largest single party in the Reichstag. At the same time it became less revolutionary and more revisionist in its outlook. -

Marxist Revisionism
led by Bernstein, it was the concept that socialist ideas could be accomplished through using the present government, by voting democratically and peacefully rather than by violent revolution

Section 3 Ottoman Empire

Crimean War- 1854 – 1856
the war fought over the Eastern Question. Ottoman Empire, Britain, and France vs. Russia. It was poorly fought and was costly to both sides. (According to your text book) It resulted in the demise of the Concert of Europe by weakening Russia and turning it against Austria (who didn’t support Russia despite Russia’s bailing out Austria in 1848). Uh oh, looks like the harmony is over. France hates Germany, Russia hates Austria, etc. this is going to get ugly ( . . . WWI).

SECTION 3 Austria

Austria-Hungary (1867) The Dual Monarchy 

Austria became Austria-Hungary with the (Compromise) of 1867 with its largest ethnic minority, the Hungarians. Both parts of the empire now had its own constitution, its own bicameral legislature, its own governmental machinery for domestic affairs, and its own capital (Vienna for Austria and Budapest for Hungary). They still shared a single monarch, (Francis Joseph = Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary) an army, foreign policy, and system of finances. In domestic affairs, Hungary had become independent.

Francis Joseph-
the reining emperor of Austria during the creation of the Dual-Monarchy.
Magyars- the Hungarian nationality that gained partial independence (mainly in domestic affairs) with the Dual-Monarchy in 1867


Tsar Alexander II - Reformist Russian tsar.
He was a realist who knew that reforms could not be postponed. He issued the Emancipation Edict of 1861, freeing the serfs. He also instituted zemstvos, providing some self-government.

Emancipation Edict
- issued in 1861 by Alexander II, it gave Russian serfs the right to property, to marry as they chose, and to bring suits in the law courts. They were provided with land by the government that they could purchase from the landowners, but the landowners kept the best land for themselves, and the peasants soon found that they didn’t have enough good arable land to support themselves. The situation unexpectedly worsened as the peasant population increased rapidly in the second half of the 19th century.

Tsar Alexander III – Autocratic / brutal Russian Tsar
decided that, because of the assassination of his father, reform had been a mistake. He quickly instituted “exceptional measures” which included beefing up the secret police, persecuting constitutional reform advocates, and placing entire Russian districts under martial law if the government suspected the inhabitants of treason. He also curtailed his father’s zemstvos.

Revolution of 1905

Nicholas II

Bloody Sunday / Revolution of 1905
the Russo-Japanese war caused growing discontent of Russians and led to upheaval. Middle class businessman wanted liberal institutions and a liberal political system. Nationalities were dissatisfied with their domination by a 45% Russian ethnic population. Peasants were still suffering from a lack of land, and laborers felt oppressed by their working and living conditions in Russia’s large cities. When a war-related transportation breakdown led to food shortages in major Russian cities, a procession of workers went to the palace in St. Petersburg on Jan, 9 1905 to present a petition of grievances to the tsar. Troops idiotically opened fire on the peaceful demonstration, killing hundreds and launching a revolution (this was known as “Bloody Sunday”). This event caused workers to call for strikes and form unions; meanwhile zemstvos demanded a parliamentary government, ethnic groups revolted, and peasants burned the houses of landowners. Nicholas II responded by issuing the October Manifesto which granted civil liberties and agreed to create a Duma (legislative assembly) elected directly by a broad franchise. This didn’t last long however and soon Russia was under tsarist rule again until World War I.


Queen Victoria (r. 1837-1901)
Queen of Britain who ruled during much of Gladstone’s and Disraeli’s governments.

Benjamin Disraeli- (conservative Prime Minister)
Conservative leader in Parliament who unwittingly carried through with the liberal plan for more reform by passing the Reform act of 1867, giving the vote to some of the lower class (he knew the liberals wouldn’t dare oppose it). He believed that the uneducated classes would look up to their social superiors when they voted. His plan backfired (in the short run) as the lower classes supported the liberals. Kagan (correctly) notes that in the looong run he was correct about the working class.
- Disraeli’s Conservatives embraced economic reform based on a paternalistic desire to protect the weak and reduce the dangers of a socialist revolution.
- Reforms centered on sanitation, health ,physical wellbeing (even if it tramples private property), Housing, and recognizing the rights of workers’ unions.

The Franchise Reform Bill of 1867- Granted the vote to lower class urban workers! passed by conservatives headed by Disraeli, it expanded the vote by lowering the monetary requirements, including many male urban workers. Disraeli expected to create an conservative coalition of the Upper classes and the lower classes against the Liberal middle class. The plan backfired. They instead voted for the Liberals, and helped produce a Liberal victory in 1868. Put it in the context of 1832, 1867, 1884 for the expansion of the right to vote in England. England is slowly becoming a democracy.

William Gladstone- (Liberal) rival of Disraeli .
Liberal Party prime minister of Britain who passed many reforms, including the Reform Act of 1884, giving the vote to all men who paid regular rents or taxes. He also attempted to alleviate Irish discontent by enacting failed limited land reform and Irish Home Rule.
- Gladstone’s Liberals focused on individualism, free trade, and competition to solve social problems.
Tried to create a level playing field for all individuals to compete (based on ability and merit)
- His reforms included civil service exams, ending aristocratic privileges, secret ballots,
Public Education.

Reform Bill of 1884
Reform passed by Gladstone’s Liberal Party. It gave “the vote” to all men who paid regular rents or taxes, thus largely enfranchising the agricultural workers who were previously excluded. . Put it in the context of 1832, 1867, 1884 for the expansion of the right to vote in England. England is slowly becoming a democracy.

Irish Home Rule
The idea that Ireland should have some measure of self-government.
The Home Rule Bill was designed to give Ireland self-government but failed in both 1886 and 1893. Finally in 1914 Ireland broke from Britain, but Ulster remained connected. Irish Home Rule will split the Liberal party. The new (left-wing) Labour Party will benefit from the split.

Province in the north of Ireland. Although Ireland is Catholic, Ulster has a protestant majority that opposed Home Rule. Ulsterites had no desire to become a protestant minority in a catholic majority country.

Section 6
Fabian Society

British socialist organization. Laborer-supporting intellectuals who stressed the need for the workers to use their right to vote to capture the House of Commons and pass legislation that would benefit the laboring class. They later combined with trade unions to form the Labor Party.

Labour Party
New socialist party in England created by a coalition of worker groups (trade unions) and Fabian socialists in the late 1800s. The (far-left) Labour Party will capitalize on the (center-left) Liberal split over Home Rule. Its creation/popularity forces David Lloyd George’s Liberal Party to eject laissez-faire. The Labour party advocated socialist policies such as public ownership of key industries, government intervention in the economy, redistribution of wealth, increased rights for workers, the welfare state, publicly-funded healthcare and education.
(Preview: The first Labour Government/Prime Minister will not occur until 1924)

David Lloyd George- “new” Liberalism

Prime Minister who transformed Gladstone’s Liberal Party by rejecting laissez faire (while keeping political liberalism).
His efforts represented some of the first steps toward the future British Welfare state.
National Insurance Act of 1911( provided benefits for workers in the case of sickness and unemployment). Pensions for those over 70 and compensation for those injured while working. 
Increased the tax burden on the wealthy class.

“New” Liberalism- 

David Lloyd George’s changes to the British Liberal Party.
The demands of the working-class movement caused Liberals to move away from their economic ideals. They abandoned laissez-faire and voted for a series of social reforms and gradually created a British welfare state. Liberalism’s core of ‘the government that governs least governs best’ had been transformed. They kept political liberalism, but changed economic liberalism. This would be closer to the modern liberalism of America that you are familiar with.

People’s Budget

5 Modern Anti-Semitism
a Jewish movement seeking to reestablish a Jewish homeland in Palestine (ancient Israel) that arose in response to growing anti-Semitism. Theodor Herzl was Zionism’s strongest proponent. 3,000 Jews went annually to Palestine from 1904 to 1914, but by WWI the Zionist movement remained nothing more than a dream.

The comments to this entry are closed.