« More Modern Art | Main | Darwin's Bulldog »

Wednesday, February 25, 2009



Chapter 24 Terms
These have not been edited from previous years and really need some work to make them sync with the New Book.

Section 2
The Origin of Species
Charles Darwin- a scientific amateur born into an upper-middle class family, he studied theology at Cambridge but was interested in geology and biology. At age 22, he was appointed as a naturalist to study South American plants and animals on the H.M.S. Beagle. He was able to study island species that were virtually untouched by external influence and compare them to species on the mainland. With this information, he came up with the theory of natural selection, and presented it in 1859 (he was 50 now) in his On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection. He believed that specific “variants” were partly responsible for enabling a specific organism to be “more fit” than another, allowing the variant organism to survive and reproduce, and the organism without to die and become extinct. He later applied natural selection to humans in The Descent of Man in 1871.

Herbert Spencer- Social Darwinism. 
He was British philosopher who argued that societies were organisms that evolved through time from a struggle with their environment. The progress came from the “struggle for survival” as the “fit” individual advanced while the weaker declined.
Used to justify the economic stratification. In capitalistic societies, the fit become rich and the weak become poor. Pseudo-scientific justification for laissez-faire.

Social Darwinism- Darwin’s theory was applied to society by people such as Spencer who viewed society as an organism evolving (the fit survive, the weak decline). According to this theory, individuals who die tragically shouldn’t be aided, because their deaths are beneficial to society as a whole. This concept was also applied to business (strong companies prosper, weak ones fall) and even nations. Racism was also strengthened by the application of this theory.

Section 3
Generally, any branch of a religion that rejects modern ideas 
both Protestant and Catholic, fundamentalist sects were very important in maintaining a literal interpretation of the Bible. Pope Pius IX took a rigid stand against many modern ideas (nationalism, socialism, religious toleration, lay-controlled education, and freedom of speech and press).
Ex cathedra- 
Generally, when the pope states something officially (as the last word of the church)
Specifically; Pius IX stated ex cathedra in the Syllabus of Errors that it is “an error to … agree with progress, liberalism, and modern civilization.” He condemned nationalism, socialism, religious toleration, lay-controlled education, and freedom of speech and press.
French Anticlericalism- 
A major divide between the French Left and Right. In the late 19th century and early 20th century, the 3rd Republic was cutting back on government-religion ties (sparking anger from the right)

- Bismarck’s attack on the Catholic Church, the “struggle for civilization”. He and middle-class liberals alike distrusted Catholic loyalty to the new Germany. He eventually abandoned the attack on Catholicism when his strong-arm tactics proved counterproductive.

Section 4
Albert Einstein- German physicist / theory of relativity. 
According to this theory, matter and energy reflected the relativity of time and space, and matter was simply another form of energy. His theories led to the atomic age.
Relativity was a major blow to the Newtonian model of the universe (the base for modern science). Relativity damaged Victorian faith/confidence in science.
Sigmund Freud- 
a Viennese doctor who put forth a series of theories that undermined optimism about the rational nature of the human mind. His ideas were published in 1900 and became known as psychoanalysis. According to Freud, human behavior was strongly determined by repressed, unconscious drives (not an enlightened rational calculator). He relied on hypnosis and dreams to explore the contents of the unconscious.
Monet- an impressionist painter 
Rejected realism and sought to capture the interplay of light, and water and atmosphere, which was evident in his Impression, Sunrise.
German intellectual who glorified the irrational. He believed that the “slave morality” of Christianity had obliterated the human impulse for life and had crushed the human will. He thought that in order to renew society, the fact that “God is dead” had to be recognized. He believed that the void of God made it possible to create a higher kind of being called the “superman”. These superior intellectuals must free themselves from the ordinary thinking of the masses and create their own values to lead the masses. Nietzsche rejected political democracy, social reform, and universal suffrage.
Psychoanalysis- (Freud, modern rejection of Enlightenment model of rational behavior)
based on Freud’s major ideas, published in his The Interpretation of Dreams. Freud believed that human behavior was strongly determined by repressed, unconscious drives. He relied on hypnosis and dreams to explore the contents of the unconscious. He theorized that there were three inner forces drove human’s- the id (unconscious pleasure drive), the ego (the coordinator of the inner life, governed by reality and reason) and the superego (conscience, represented inhibitions and moral values imposed upon people, it forced the ego to curb the unsatisfactory drives of the id). He thought that repression of emotions (especially sexual ones) started very young, and if a psychotherapist could retrace the chain of repression of a patient all the way back to its childhood origins and make the conscious mind aware of the unconscious and its repressed contents, the patient’s psychic conflict would be resolved.
Theory of Relativity- Einstein’s theory that time and space don’t have an existence, they are simply relative to matter. Also, that matter itself was nothing but another form of energy. He related the two in his formula E=mc_. His most radical notion is that there is no objective frame of reference. His ideas were originally rejected, but his theories were eventually confirmed.

Impressionism- the beginning of modern painting, impressionism was started in France in the 1870s by a group of artists who rejected studios and museums and went into the countryside to paint nature directly. They rejected the precision of painting, but instead felt that it was more important to portray the sensation of an image . Modernist attack on traditional art.

Marie Curie- 
French scientist who discovered radiation and thus the disintegrative process within atoms. Inquiry into this process became a central theme of the new physics.
German physicist who came up with the quantum theory; that energy radiated discontinuously in ‘packets’ that he called “quanta”. This theory endangered the world of Newtonian physics.

Pavlov- Review Book
physiologist who got dogs to salivate at the sound of a bell, proving that the mind can be manipulated and trained (if it works on animals then it works on humans). His research was the beginnings of behaviorism
Manet, Degas, & Renoir- 
well known modern artists
Quantum Theory- proposed by Planck, it maintained that energy did not radiate in a steady stream but rather discontinuously, in irregular packets that he called “quanta”. This new view of atoms changed views of the material world and the world of Newtonian physics.
The Modern Era & responses to it- the emergence of the modern consciousness near the end of the 19th century was the result of changes in ideas and culture that challenged people’s scientific assumptions, opening up a new view of the physical universe and appealing to the irrational and alternative views of human nature and radically innovative forms of literary and artistic expression, shattering old beliefs.
You could either reject it (fundamentalism) or incorporate the new ideas into your woldview.

The comments to this entry are closed.