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Sunday, December 07, 2008



Napoleon Stuff

Elba : 1st island of exhile for Napoleon (that is all). Small Island in the Mediterranean

Famous naval battle in which England defeated the French Navy. It ended Napoleon’s hope for invading England. Established England as ‘the shark’

Sweeping victory for napoleon against the coalition of Austria, Russia, & England.
Establishes His dominance of the Contenent. he’s the “the tiger’ to england’s “shark”

Leipzig , Battle of (Battle of the Nations)
Famous first defeat of Napoleon, results in his exhile to elba. That is all

Emperor 1804 His Title at the Height of Napoleon’s Power. Emperor from 1804-1814. Controlled the Continent

Peninsular War
Guerilla war in Spain. (French occupying troops vs Spanish insurgency) Napoleon had
difficulties eradicating the reisitence. It sapped his time and energy,

A simple yes/no vote.
Example: Do you want Napoleon to be Consul for life?
Used by Napoleon to show that he was the people’s emperor. go figure
Napoleon won those plebicite’s because the people were tired of Revolutionary violence/chaos.
He was a Hobbes-ian strong man who brought order.

“scortched earth”
Tactic used by the Russians against Napoleon’s invasion. just retreat as they invade, drawing
them further into the heart of russia. Key point. Burn all supplies in your own country as you
retreat. This will deprive the enemy of forging for food (their supply lines are getting stretched
as they invade). Eventually, they the winter will get them. Same tactic worked against Hitler.

Coup d’etat: any military overthrow of a government. Specifically, how Napoleaon took control.

Continental System: The Economic System that napoleon enforced on Europe in order to stick it to the British. The Brits can’t do business on the continent. The Brits retaliate with a blockade around the continent. Everybody loses. It fails.


Louis XVI: the King of France during the French Revolution; did not agree with the Revolution but went along with it; tried to run away but was recognized;
(In SECTION 4) was beheaded by a vote of the National Convention dominated by the Mountain (jacobins)

Sieys: "What is the 3rd Estate?"
Wrote the pamphlet that answered the question: What is the 3rd Estate. His Answer: Everything! (the 3rd estate, according to him, IS France.)
It was a popular pamplet that circulated on the streets of Paris in the summer of '89.
It's similar to our "Common Sense"

The Bastille:
prison/arsonal freed by urban workers during the crazy summer of '89. It’s a symbol of the collapse of the OLD ORDER.

Versailles: the palace of the King of France when many nobles lived and worked
The women of paris marched to Versailles and brought the king back to Paris in '89

Austria and Prussia: countries who opposed the Revolution in France and created the Declaration of Phillnitz which invited other countries to fight the Revolution. The war against these countries is going to bring down the Limited Monarchy.

Old Regime: a derogatory term for the whole system before the revolution. Nobles or people who ruled France before the Revolution of 1789; they wanted to keep the monarchy

Estates General: the French parliamentary body that had not met since 1614 and was called by Louis XVI because of the country’s debt; consisted of three estates: clergy, nobility, and everyone else

Third Estate: the estate in the Estates General consisting of 97% of the population and made up of all people who were not clergy or nobility (bourgeoisie, skilled workers, unskilled workers, and peasants)

Tennis Court Oath: oath taken by the third estate to become the National Assembly and write a constitution for France. Beginning of the Revolution!!!

National Assembly: group formed from the 3rd Estate to write a constitution for France. Will morph into the Legislative Assembly

July 14, 1789: date of the capture of Bastille

Great Fear: Peasant Uprisings against the Old order 1789. Based on their fear that the country was going to be invaded by foreign powers that would crush the revolution.

Women’s March: march of Parisian women to Versailles because of inflated bread prices. Brings the King back to Paris making him a prisoner of the revolution

Declaration of the Rights of Man:
the document written by the National Assembly that gave citizens their freedoms. Freedom of Speech, Religion, etc. Major accomplishment of the early revolution.

Civil Constitution of the Clergy: document issued by the National Assembly ordering that all bishops and priests of the Catholic church to be elected and paid by the state and that they must take an oath of allegiance to the Civil Constitution; was outlawed by the pope and caused turmoil in the church and therefore in the lives of Catholic French citizens

Necker: Swiss bank advisor to Louis XVI. (just recognize him if you ever see it)

Marie Antoinette:
the Queen of France; wife to Louis XVI; symbol of the excesses of the old order. Eventually executed.

Lafayete: Leader during the early phase of the revolution 1789. A symbol of the revolution and very popular. He was put in charge of the National Guard (an army of the people) He had been a French general who was of nobility and fought in the War of Independence in the Americas

Cahiers de doleances: List of grievances that people in France are asked to present to the Estates General. REVOLUTIONS OCCUR IN TIMES OF RISING EXPECTATIONS.

Corvees: peasant obligations that are abolished during the 1st phase of the revolution

Tricolor flag: flag adopted during the first phase of the Revolution; red, white, and blue vertically striped;

Paper Money issued on the value of land confiscated from the church.
Causes inflation.
Significance: peasants had expected the lands to be given to them.
AND inflation hurt the working class. uh oh.

National Guard:
New People’s Police Force of the Revolution (in the early days)

Levee en masse:
The Army of the people to fight the Austrians during the 2nd radical phase of the Revolution.

Constitution of 1791: constitution created by the National Assembly creating a LIMITED MONARCHY. and active/passive citizens.

Active Citizens:
Citizens who have rights and the vote, and pay taxes.
Rationale for only allowing the wealthy to vote: "Stake in Society" theory. Only those with something to lose should have a say in the government.

Passive Citizens:
Citizens who have all of the rights of Frenchmen; HOWEVER, since they don't pay much in taxes, are not given a vote. Wow, Brentwood just put the screwgie on Antioch. Better watch Old Hickory Blvd for Trucks with guns. : )

Guild (CW):
kinda like a combination Labor Union and Business Association. Craftsmen (blacksmiths, brewers, etc) would combine into a guild and determine such issues as prices, product quality, training, etc. A Guild was also like a Brentwood Mega-Church in that it was the social center for that particular group AND would take care of members who needed help (provided a social safety net in bad times). Guilds were THE basic structure of the economy in europe from the middle ages to about 1800.

Adam Smith and the supporters of Free Markets pointed out that Guild restrict workers from making decisions about quality/pricing/etc. and cause prices to be artifically higher than in a free market. THAT is why the fist phase of the revolution abolished them. In order to Help (free) workers.
HOWEVER, guilds also were the social safety net for workers in bad times. oop

Necker: Famous finance minister of Louis XVI. Last ditch effort to save a backrupt France

Marie Antoinette: Wife of Louis XIV. Became a symbol of the decadent aristocracy for the revolutionary masses. Boo Marie! “Let them eat cake” Eventually Executed by Robespierre’s Jacobins

- Famous French Soldier who helped in the American Revolution.
- Became an early mover in the French Revolution. Became head of the National Guard and a hero of the Revolution.
- As the Revolution progresses, is percieved as “not revolutionary enough” and is executed by Robespierre and the Jacobins.

Murat: Famous Jacobin killed in his bathtub by a Girondin. . . . by a GIRL Girondin
His execution is used to justify The Terror. “We’ve got enemies of the revolution living in our midst!! We must root them out!”
Significance: Governments will often use a real tragedy to whip people into fear. and then use that fear to get people to go along with anything the governnent proposes for the safety of the

Cahiers de doleances
In a last ditch effort to fix a failing country, Louis XVI had the people of France make a List of Greievences that each community was to present for the King
Significance: Revolutions occur in times of rising expectation.

Peasant obligations under feudalism. Abolished during the first phase of the revolution. That is all.

Tricolor Flag
Symbol of the Revolution. Thick Red, White, & Blue vertical stripes.
Replaced the White flag of the Monarchy. White becomes the symbol for conservativism for the next 100 years.

Paper Money created by the new revolutionary government. Issued on the value of the lands confiscated from the Church. The money lost value and led to inflation.
Notice: Land was not given to the poor. Land was used by the new government to print money.

National Guard: Peoples army of the revolution during those early days of the Revolution. Led by Lafayette

Levee en masse
the People’s army (army of the masses) that was drafted (conscripted) to fight against the Austrian/English army during the more radical phase of the Revolution

Constitution of 1791: The first government created during the French Revolution.
It created a limited Monarchy (like englands) that focused on the rights of people
It represented the desires of the Bourgeousie elements of the revolution.

A leader of the Jacobins, & Colleague of Robespierre. Eventually labeled an “enemy of the revolution” and executed during the Reign of Terror. His execution scared everyone, since it was obvious to all that anyone could be labeled an “enemy” It was after his death that a group got the guts to go after Robespierre and end The Terror.

the heart of the French Revolution. The most revolutionary area in France. A lot of the country-side still supported the Monarchy. (and to this day is more conservative than Paris)

The Bastille:
- A prison in Paris. It became a symbol of repression
- a mob in Paris overran and took it over on 7/14/1789 (while the bourgeoisie was meeting in the Estates-General. It was a major contribution of the Petty bourgeoisie and working classes to the revolution.

Versailles: the king’s palace 20 miles outside Paris.
The women of Paris march to Versailles and forcibly bring the King back to Paris

Austria & Prussia:
Enemies of the French Revolution. Each feared the revolution would spill over into their countries. Some French revolutionaries feel that a war against these enemies would generate patriotism and support for the government.

Ancien regime (the old order):
just a catchphrase used by historians to refer to Europe before 1789. It’s the world that the enlightenment thinkers opposed. You associate arbitrary monarchy, lack of rights, etc. with it. The French Revolution attempted to eradicate the Ancient regime.

National Assembly:
The Third Estate invites the other 2 Estates to join it and call themselves the National Assembly. A symbolic gesture. “We are not divided into estates, this political group is an assembly of the entire nation.” The National Assembly then starts to create the new government (limited monarchy). It will become the Legislative Assembly when the limited monarchy is created.

7/14/89 : Bastille Day.

Great Fear: rural peasant uprising in the summer of 1789.
Demonstrates that 1) all classes were participating 2) it’s gonna get violent

Declaration of the Rights of Man: THE symbol of the early bourgeoisie revolution.
But, one cannot eat rights. Hmmm

Section 3 and 4 stuff

Sans-Culottes (culottes are knee breeches): literally, ‘without knee-breeches’
The Workers of Paris have a new sense of class identity and are taking to the streets. The Sans Culottes are the group the Jacobins claim to speak for.


the lower-middle class and artisan class (petite bourgeoisie) radicals during the French Revolution. Not an official organization. (redneck, emo kids, goths, indie music geeks, etc)

Political Clubs in Paris. Radical republicans. claimed to represent the interests of the sans-culottes

Radical political faction within the Legislative Assembly. eventually took control of it. Started a war with austria. lost power to a more radical faction (the jacobins).

The Mountain:
Most Radical political faction in the Legislative Assembly. Became fierce critics of the Girondins. The Mountain & Jacobins will eventually become synonomous. Claimed to represent the aims of the Sans-culottes.

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