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Sunday, October 26, 2008



Adams, are you going to post the terms for the chapter

Aja Baldwin

Can someone scan the homework sheet for me (not done yet of course)? I need it! I lost mine!


Scientific Revolution-
17th Century Explosion of knowledge
AND new ways of knowing.
western world overthrows medieval, Ptolemy/Aristotle ideas replaced

The emergence of the modern western mindset- the scientific revolution changed people’s perception of the universe, and made them wonder where God fit in or what role he played. The scientific developments of this period eventually led to generally more rationalistic, materialistic, and most of all secular thought (the modern western mindset).

Ancient Greek philosopher whose ideas dominate "science" until the 1600s

Creator of the Heliocentric Model of the Universe.
Significance: Well, man is no longer the center of the universe. hmmm

3 Laws of Planetary Motion
Significance: The universe is governed by Mathmatical rules. it's not just random.

Galileo- the first European to make systematic observations of the heavens by means of a telescope, proved celestial bodies weren’t perfect, and discovered inertia. He believed it was unnecessary to pit science against religion
Significance: Poster Boy for the struggle between science and the church.

Isaac Newton- discovered the universal law of gravitation and by using this, linked the discoveries of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo to form a new cosmology and establish the modern conception of the universe (he wrote Principia, which stated the three laws of motion). Also, he linked Bacon’s inductive method and Descartes deductive method to form the Scientific method.
THE creator of the modern mind.

Ptolemy- the greatest astronomer of antiquity who viewed the universe as a series of rotating concentric crystalline spheres with earth at the center

Tycho Brahe- kept the most accurate observations of the time, but was most famous for taking on Kepler as his assistant

Cardinal Ballarmine- Cardinal who condemned Galileo for his Copernican teachings

Heliocentric- sun-centered (Copernicus)

Geocentric- earth-centered (Ptolemy)

a body will stay at rest OR in motion forever until an outside force acts upon it.
first proposed by Galileo who added the "in motion" to Aristotle's ""at rest"
Revolutionary because it is counterintuitive to what you observe in your daily life.

Telescope- Galileo was the first to use the telescope to study the planets and stars, inaugurating a new age in astronomy


Midwife- a child-delivery assistant (traditionally a woman, men began to take over the practice during the Scientific Revolution).
Significance: well, this can be viewed within the narrative of guys muscling in on another field of women. OR
it can be viewed in the larger "scientification" of all aspects of life.

Francis Bacon-
He thought that the best guide to knowledge is through your own experiences and senses, that you should begin with observations and from them derive general trends (inductive reasoning)

Rene Descartes- the ‘father of modern rationalism’, he rejected everything he was ever taught and all assumptions of his senses and decided to only accept what his reason could prove true. In his Discourse on Method, he explained his belief that one can start with self-evident truths and deduce more complex conclusions (deductive method)

Benedict de Spinoza- a man from Amsterdam who was excommunicated from the Amsterdam synagogue. He was greatly influenced by Descartes and followed his rational approach to knowledge, but was unwilling to accept the separation of mind from matter, and of an infinite God from the finite world of matter. He felt God was in everything.

Blaise Pascal- French scientist who wanted to keep science and religion together. He had a mystical experience and from then on sought to convert rationalists to Christian religion, which he was determined to show did not conflict with reason (which was done in his book Pensées)

Inductive Method- reasoning from detailed facts to general principals using careful experimentation and sensory observations/experience (used by Bacon)
I see black crowes. only Black crowes. THEREFORE, "all crowes are black"

Deductive Method- reasoning from self-evident truths to complex conclusions using just reason, not experience (used by Descartes)
- All Crowes are Black
- That thing is a crowe
- That thing is black

Scientific Method- Newton fused the inductive and deductive methods of reasoning into the single scientific method which began with systematic observations and experiments, which were used to arrive at general concepts. Deductions from these general concepts could then be tested and verified by precise experiments. The Scientific Method told how things worked but did not give an answer for why they did.

“Cogito Ergo Sum”- “I think therefore I am” said by Descartes, it was one thing that could not be disproved

Cartesian Dualism- the belief in the separation of mind and body (proposed by Descartes). Your "mind" is distinct and apart from "the universe"

Pascal’s Wager- Pascal decided that if he was a good Christian and God did exist, it would be good and if he wasn’t a good Christian he would go to hell. If God didn’t exist than it didn’t matter. Therefore it was a safer bet to be a good Christian just in case God exists.

The religious response to the new science- the church kept with the Ptolemaic-Aristotelian theory of cosmology, which greatly hurt them as mind of the educated person began to separate scientific investigations and religious beliefs. Science began to win over, causing a growing secularization in European intellectual life, exactly opposite of what the church had hoped for.

French Academy of Science- it received abundant state support, and its members were appointed and paid by the state. They were encouraged to do practical work to benefit both “the king and the state” (this was mirrored in German societies)

English Royal Society- received little government encouragement; its members appointed the new members


materialism (492)
Hard: There is nothing other than material objects/world. If it’s not physical, it’s not real.
Soft: There may be a spirit realm, but since we can’t study it, we’ll agree to just ignore it
Thomas Hobbes was the first modern materialist. (in public)
Modern Science assumes a (soft) materialism. It’s part of the basic definition.
Although Deism was THE concept in the Enlightenment, some philosophes began embracing a more materialistic concept of the world.

John Locke (RB 158 - 159)
(POLITICAL): Natural Rights, Consent of the Governed, Right to revolt,
(SOCIAL): Tabula Rosa - humans are a blank slate at birth. experience makes you YOU

Eric Donahue

this is like, the one chapter i actually understand all of.


Mechanistic Universe
The new "scientific" view of the universe. The universe is orderly, predictable, understandable, justt like a machine.
(the opposite would be one that is run on the whims of chance, fate, God)


Hey Adams, I know I asked you about this in class, but I'm still confused. What exactly due tommorow?


no problem,

ONLY the Study-Thingy for Section 4
"Social History"
the actual directions are on the Homework Sheet. But the Homework questions are not due. Just the 1 page study thingy


I'm not seeing any page 1 study thingy. I'm probably missing something that's like, right infront of me, but I can't find this. What dayd did you give this to us?


OOOh. Nevermind.


When is the chap. test and which chaps. ?

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