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Saturday, October 06, 2007



Magellan- Spaniard whose crew was the first to sail around the world,

Hernan Cortes- Spaniard who defeated the Aztecs. gave wealth to spain and demonstrates the brutality of new world conquest.

De Las Casas- a Dominican friar whose works caused the Spanish government to abolish the encomienda system and provide more protection for the natives. but suggested using Africans instead

Prince Henry the Navigator- he established a Portuguese school for navigators and explored much of the west African coast in search of gold. Sig: Gave Portugal the head start on exploration.

da Gama- first to get to India (around Africa) went to India in search of “Christians and spices”, found spices, made a huge profit FOR PORTUGAL. gives portugal the east route to asia

Dias- Portuguese, he headed out along the coast of Africa in search of a route to India TO BYPASS ARAB TRADERS. Got around the Cape of Good Hope but in fear of a mutiny from his crew, turned back.

Columbus- Italian who sailed FOR SPAIN tried to find a shorter route to India by sailing WEST into the Atlantic. (in order to compete with Portugeuse EASTWARD dominance)

Pizarro- defeated Incas. example of brutality of new world exploration.

Portugal- A leader in the age of expansion and discovery, they gained territories in the new world, explored the African coast, and set up trading posts in India and China

Cape of Good Hope- Southern tip of Africa rounded by Dias and da Gama

“God, gold, and glory”- the motives for exploration

Treaty of Tordesillas- divided the up the newly discovered world into separate Portuguese and Spanish spheres of influence. Gave Spain the Edge

Conquistadores- privately financed explorers/conquerors in the new world. brutal

Encomienda system- permitted the conquering Spaniards to collect tribute from the natives and use them as laborers (opposed by de Las Casas)


Catherine d Medici (401): French Wars of Religion.
Regent of France and architect? of the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre. Ousted by Henry Bourbon.

Politiques (402) : French wars of Religion
Frenchmen who wanted to see religious passions taken out of politics. Early advocates for the separation fo church and state. “believed that no religious truth was worth the ravages of a civil war”

Henry III (Henry Valois)- French king during the War of the 3 Henries, assassinates Henry Guise, teams up with Henry of Navarre to defeat the Catholic league

Henry Guise- leader of the Ultra-Catholics, opposed the Huguenots, assassinated by Henry III (Valois) in the War of the Three Henrys

House of Bourbon-
Beginning of Chapter: Calvinist -Huguenot headed by Henry Navarre (later Henry IV)
End of Chapter: Royal House of France - big catholic family

Huguenots- French Calvinists
Only 10% of Frenchies, but 50% of French nobility.

St Bartholomew’s Day Massacre- 3 day slaughter of Huguenots. example of the savagry of the era

The Catholic League- made to destroy the Huguenots and put a good Catholic (Guise) on the throne

Edict of Nantes- It made Catholicism the official religion of France but granted rights to Huguenots Passed by Henry IV
( SIG SIG SIG ---> first document of religious toleration in Europe<---)

Posted by: adams | Sunday, September 30, 2007 at 08:31 AM


Margaret of Parma (403):
Ruler of the Dutch under Philip’s rule. Her easy treatment allowed the calvanists to go a little berserk. Philip replaces her with the more brutal Duke of Alba

Duke of Alba (405): Took a “get tough” approach against the rebellious Dutch. Counterproductive in that it only unified the diverse dutch people against phillip.

Zeeland (CW): one of the provinces of the Netherlands (Dutch). Just recognize it as dutch if you ever see it.

Antwerp (CW): Major commercial/trading city of the Dutch. Sacked by the Spanish in the Revolt of the Netherlands. Use as an example of the ferocity that wars of religion produce.

Battle of Lepanto (404): Phillip II Spain
Naval battle in mediteranean sea between Christian spain and Muslim Turks. Philip ejected the Turks from the sea. Example of Philips’ desire to be “the most catholic king”

Generally: The Destruction of Religious imagery (icons)
Specifically: Dutch Calvanist broke the religious peace of the Netherlands by detroying Catholic churches. This sparked Philips attempt to pacify the dutch (which only served to unify the dutch against him)
Uses: use it in an essay on Religion and politics. or how calvanism was a destabalizing force in 16th century europe.

Sack of Antwerp: City destroyed in the Dutch Revolt.
Angry/unpaid spanish soldiers decided to pay themselves by looting Antwerp for 3 days (killing 8000). Amsterdam will benefit by becoming the new commercial center for the dutch. Example of the autrocities both sides will commit in the name of religion and others try to avenge.

39 Articles :
The list of beliefs of the Church of England created by Elizabeth. They are moderate in their protestant ideas. The 39 are an easing up of the 42 Articles created by the radical protestants under her brother, Edward VI.

The Elizabethan Settlement (406):
This is the name for the compromise establishing the look of england’s official church (The Church of England) by the Act of Uniformity. Most people accepted it. Only Extreme Protestants (Calvanists-Puritans) and Extreme Catholics were unhappy with this compromise.

Act of Uniformity (406):
Elizabeth’s attempt to reduce the hatred between catholics and protestants in England.
Each wanted the church of england to be in line with their beliefs. Elizabeth split the difference. The Church of England would be protestant (with protestant doctrines) BUT would avoid the excesses of protestantism by keeping the look/feel of the catholic church. It would keep the pomp and formality of catholic liturgy.

Mary Queen of Scotts (407):
Cousin & rival of Elizabeth I. Elizabeth had her executed. Elizabeth could be cunning at times (fox) but she’d whoop you if you needed it (lion). Mary got the Whoopin


30 years war (big picture)-
religious war between Protestants and Catholics, turns into a political war when catholic France sides with Protestants, ends with the Peace of Westphalia

Emperor Ferdinand (412)
Began the 30 years war by trying to pacify the calvinistic Palatinate. Eventually tried to eradicate all protestantism in the Holy Roman Empire during the first phase of that war.

Frederick of the Palatinate (412)
Leader of the Protestant princes against Ferdinand during the first phase of the war. Failed.

site of the beginning of the 30 years war in the H.R.E. Part of Hapsburg domain. Bohemian Nobles depose Ferdinand and invite Frederick to rule Bohemia

Prague (CW):
Capital of Bohemia (modern day czechoslovakia). Location of the Defenestration of Prague which is another example of the ferocity that wars of religion produce.

Defenestration of Prague
Bohemian Calvanists threw Emperor Ferdinand’s catholic boyz out of a window into a pile of pooh. They were not happy. Started the 30 Years War.
Significances: Shows the extreme behavior religious passion will stir up in this chapter. example (if a minor one) of the atrocities people will commit.

Gustavus Adolphus- Lutheran king of Sweden who helped out the Lutherans in Germany by sending in his army. Saved Protestantism in the 30 Years War. Died at the successful Battle of Lutzen

Cardinal Richelieu- chief French minister who led Catholic France against Catholic Germany in the 30 years war. War became (catholic) Bourbon vs (catholic) Hapsburg

Sack of Magdeburg
City destroyed in the 30 Years War. Example of the autrocities both sides will commit and try to avenge.

Battle of Lutzen
Battle in which Gustav Adolphus was killed, thus ending any real hope the protestants had against Emperor Ferdinand.

Cardinal Richelieu’s Motives in the 30 years War-
Feared encirclement by the Spanish and Austrian Hapsburgs.
his motives were to weaken the Hapsburgs and gain power for France.

Terms of the Peace of Westphalia 1648
- Hapsburgs have little power within Germany, Calvinism added to the Peace of Augsburg, France is new superpower, Spain is down, Swiss Confederation and Dutch Netherlands recognized. Religion and Politics considered different spheres


Joint Stock Company (409): Commercial Revolution / Capitalism
A company that raises money for itself by selling stock (shares) to individuals who then will recieve dividends (profits) when the company makes money. It’s a way for people with a good idea and no cash to start a business by selling off part of the ownership of the business. Perfected by the Dutch which allowed their businessmen to be the richest in europe and thus made the Dutch the richest people (for a while). It’s a key part of the emergence of Capitalism in teh 16th Century.

Dutch East India Company ( ): Commercial Revolution / Capitalism
major Joint Stock Company that gave the dutch a headstart in Asian Trade. Also an example of a Monopoly (single producer) given by a govenment.
Key to Dutch Wealth.


Christopher Wren (RB): Baroque Architect
Designed and built St. Pauls Cathedral in London. 2nd Biggest Dome

Shakespear (422):
use in any essay about the Golden Age of England under Queen Elizabeth.

Cervantes (422):
wrote Don Quixoite. Use in any essay about Spain’s golden age
El Greco (420): Weird painter of spain. Use in any essay about Spain’s golden age.

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