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Monday, February 20, 2017

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adams

Section 3
The “new” imperialism (1860-1900)-
The period in the late 1800s in which Europeans carved up Asia and Africa for a variety of purposes near the end of the 19th century. The “old” imperialism focused on the New World in the 1700s.

Afrikaner”- (Boers)

descendants of Dutch colonists living in South Africa who were disgusted by the policies of the British

Scramble for Africa”- European competition to acquire African colonies (1880ish – 1900ish)

Cecil Rhodes

Boer War (1899-1904)- war between the British and the old Dutch government of South Africa, the British won with the result being a Union of South Africa, which like others was a fully self-governing dominion within the British Empire (the British were startled when many Europeans condemned their activity in the war, and quickly abandoned their policy of “splendid isolation” to seek an alliance with a continental power).

Leopold II- the man mainly responsible for the colonization of central Africa, he was the Belgian king who rushed enthusiastically into the pursuit of empire in Africa to bring civilization to “the only part of our globe where it has not yet penetrated”. Profit was most important to him however, and he treated the Africans very brutally. Oh, and he was acting as a private citizen, not as the King of Belgium (?!?)

The Congo
- area of central Africa that was brutalized by Leopold II (Belgium). Became a symbol of the brutality of colonial rule. It was so bad that other European powers used it as a negative example and attempted to create a set of guidelines for “better” rule.

Berlin Conference

Africa Map!
Egypt, Suez Canal
Britain’s lifeline to India. A must-defend area for the British in any major conflict. It connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea/Indian Ocean

South Africa 

site of the Boer War between the British and the Boers (the Dutch). In 1910 the Union of South Africa was declared and it became its own self-governing dominion within the British Empire

Ethiopia- 
Italy felt they needed to join in the imperialist scramble and went after Ethiopia, only to be humiliatingly defeated in 1896. One of two African nations

adams

“Civilizing Mission”

Rudyard Kipling (White Man’s Burden)
- 
His poem/essay White Man’s Burden stated that the inferior races depended on the superior white race to watch over them. According to Burden, the white man should guide the inferior races for the benefit and “profit” of the latter (however in reality the invasive country would be the one that profited). Great example of Social Darwinism and the way Europeans looked at imperialism.

Orientalism

Marxist Critique of Imperialism

Section 4

India
Britain’s #1 colony. 
Crown Jewel of the Empire. 
Victoria became empress of India in 1876. The British brought Western technology and education, but it didn’t help the overpopulated and impoverished Indians nearly enough. All the best jobs and housing were reserved for Brits, and an arrogant feeling of British superiority led to the rise of an Indian nationalistic movement.


adams

CHP 25: Section 1

Emperor William II (Wilhelm II)
- Emperor of Germany,
PRE-War: promised Austria-Hungary Germany’s “full support” even if “matters went to the length of a war between Austria-Hungary and Russia”. This German response to the Austrians has been known as the “blank check” and the German motives behind it are still being questioned today.


Archduke Francis Ferdinand
- heir to the Austrian throne, the Archduke and his wife Sophia were assassinated in the Bosnian city of Sarajevo on June 28, 1914 by Gavrillo Princip, a Bosnian activist working for the Black Hand (a Serbian terrorist organization dedicated to the creation of a pan-Slavic kingdom). This event resulted in a confrontation between Austria and Serbia that led to World War I.

PreWar motivations of the Big 5- 

- ENGLAND had a policy of “splendid isolation” but soon realized it needed reinforcement against Germany (the two were having an arms race with battleships, and Germany was the new industrial powerhouse) so it allied with its traditional enemy, France. 

- FRANCE also realized that it needed to ally with Britain in order to balance out the powerful Germany. Also, the French still sought revenge against the Germans for the humiliation they endured in 1871. -------
- GERMANY was the premier power on the continent and was searching for its “place in the sun.” It realized Austria was its best natural ally and stuck with her. 

- AUSTRIA was now the subordinate German state and held on tightly to its ally in Germany. Austria was also dealing with the problem of ethnic-nationalism (Slavic) which endangered its very existence
- RUSSIA’s ego was bruised from their losses in the Crimean and Russo-Japanese wars, and looked to gain back its credibility as a European power by encouraging Slavic nationalism (Pan-Slavism), creating tension with the Austrians who worked to suppress this nationalism (for its own self-preservation).

Triple Entente-
The PRE-War name for the alliance of Britain, France, Russia. 
 DURING the war it will be referred to as the Allied Powers (with Italy)

Triple Alliance-
The PRE-War alliance of Germany, Austria, Italy. 
The Triple Alliance of 1882 committed Germany, Austria, and Italy to support the existing political order while providing a defensive alliance against France or “two or more great powers not members of the alliance.” After War broke out, Italy left and the Ottoman Turks joined and the Triple Alliance became the Central Powers

Slavic Nationalism 

Eastern European movement that sought independent states carved out of the Ottoman Empire and Austria. Eventually will trigger the First World War.

The Balkans- An area of Eastern Europe in which there was rivalry between Russia , Austria, & the Ottoman Turks. It was also the home of many different Slavic ethnicities, many of whom sought their own nation.

Serbia-
Small country in the Balkans bordering Austria. Serbs in Austria (Bosnia) wanted their province of Austria (Bosnia) to secede from Austria and unite with Serbia

Sarajevo, Bosnia- 
Bosnia is the Austrian province that was ethnically Serbian. Serbian Nationalists want it out of Austria and in Serbia. Franz Ferdidand will be assassinated in Sarajevo.

Long Range Causes of the War
- Nationalism that had everyone fired up for war, the alliance system that changed a one-on-one fight into a major conflict, the creation of Germany that threw off the European balance of power, the competition for empires that increased the tension, the military buildup and arms race that prepared everyone for a fight when a crisis occurred, and the ethnic nationalism in the Balkans that created instability. Also, some have argued that the desire to suppress internal disorder may have encouraged some leaders to take the plunge into war in 1914.

Schlieffen Plan
- General Schlieffen devised a plan based on the assumption of a two-front war with France and Russia. It called for a minimal troop deployment against Russia while most of the German army would make a rapid invasion of western France by way of neutral Belgium. After the planned quick defeat of the French, the German army expected to redeploy to the east against Russia. Germany issued an ultimatum to Belgium on August 2 demanding the right of German troops to pass through Belgian territory, and on August 3 declared war on France. On the 4th, Great Britain declared war on Germany over its violation of Belgian neutrality (in reality however, Britain’s reason for entering the war was to maintain their world power).
Here’s WHY you need to know that. War wasn’t inevitable. Diplomacy was still an option. However, it’s hard to negotiate in good faith when you have a great plan in place and a desire to use it.

B-Team
“blank check”
Wilhelm’s backing of Austria’s treatment of Serbia. This Blank Check emboldened Austria to make unrealistic demands and ultimatum against Serbia. (which forced Russia’s hand). The alternative to Germany’s “blank check” would have been to for her to reign Austria in and get her little brother under control.

Battle of the Marne-
the Germans executed their Schlieffen Plan and within about a month had reached the Marne River in France, about 20 miles from Paris. In the first Battle of the Marne, the British had mobilized faster than the Germans had expected, and a British and French counterattack stopped the Germans. The French were too exhausted to pursue their advantage, and soon the war turned into a stalemate as neither side was able to dislodge the other from the trenches they had begun to dig for shelter. Soon, the two lines of trenches stretched from the Channel to the borders of Switzerland. There was little progress on this Western Front throughout all 4 years of the war

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