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Tuesday, April 09, 2013

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adams

The terms are defined in the calendar posting below:
APRIL 8 to APRIL 12

Samantha

Where are the terms for 2 and 3?

adams

BAM!
SECTION 2
Nikita Khrushchev - (in Section 2)
Soviet leader after Stalin 1956-1964
De-Stalinized the Soviet Union after condemning Stalin for his “administrative violence, mass repression, and terror” at the 20th Congress of the Communist Party. Attempted to modernize / reform the Soviet Union.

De-Stalinization-
Khrushchev’s plan for ending the system of forced-labor camps and terror of Soviet life under Stalin. More intellectual freedom was permitted, he reduced the secret police, freed a number of political prisoners, and closed some of the Siberian prison camps.
May have unintendedly encouraged some of the Eastern European powers to rebel against the Soviets. Also eventually led to Khrushchev’s downfall at the hands of the hardliners.

Secret Speech of 1956
Speech before the 20th Communist Party Congress, in which Khrushchev denounced Stalin and his crimes against the Soviet Union. Hardliners feared a purge of old –Stalinists (much like earlier ones under Stalin). Purges never occurred under Khrushchev. Whew.
2 unintended consequences:
1) Eastern Europeans got the impression that they could “leave the team”
2) Lefties began re-writing the history of communism: Now Stalin was a perversion of the early Leninist revolution.

Gamel Nasser- Nationalistic leader of Egypt.
Nationalized the Suez Canal, creating a rift between the US & Britain.
He played the two superpowers against each other in order to fund the Aswan High Dam.
He refused to join either of the superpowers’ “camp”

Suez Canal (Egypt)
- In 1956 Colonel Gamel Nasser of Egypt nationalized the Suez Canal, an act strongly condemned by the British as a threat to their vital interests. British, French, and Israeli forces attacked Egypt, but strong American opposition forced the British to accept a UN cease-fire resolution and withdraw their troops.
Significance: The Suez debacle made it clear that Britain was no longer a world power.
U.S.A! U.S.A! U.S.A!

Poland 1956
In 1956 a new Polish Prime Minister began a Polish Path to Socialism (backing away from old Stalinist style communism). They waited to see how the new Khrushchev would react. Khrushchev made a personal appearance in Poland, with Soviet Tanks amassed at the border, but eventually agreed to allow Poland to pursue its new course. Whew

Hungary ’56- after Khrushchev’s denunciation of Stalin and the developments in Poland, national Communists in Hungary were inspired to seek the same kinds of reforms and independence. Intense debates resulted in the ouster of the ruling Stalinist and the selection of
Imry Nagy as the new Hungarian leader. Nagy declared Hungary a free nation on November 1, 1956. He promised free elections, which meant for Hungary (who were against communism in general, which was viewed as a Soviet creation) the possible end of Communist rule. However, Khrushchev wasn’t about to let one of his crew flee from communism, and just three days after Nagy’s declaration, the Red Army attacked the capital city of Budapest, reestablishing control over the country. Nagy was “replaced”
Significance: Use in an essay discussing Soviet domination of Eastern Europe.

Imry Nagy- Hungarian leader in 1956
In 1956 Nagy declared Hungary a free nation. He promised free elections, which meant the possible end of Communist rule in Hungary. However, just three days after Nagy’s declaration, the Red Army attacked the capital city Budapest and reestablished Soviet control over the country. He was tried and executed for Treason as an example to other Eastern Bloc leaders. Significance: Example of Soviet treatment of the Eastern Bloc and of the dissent that existed within East European governments.


Yugoslavia - the Communist resistance movement of Yugoslavia was led by Tito, who seemed to be a loyal Stalinist. However, after the war, he moved toward the establishment of an independent Communist state in Yugoslavia. Stalin hoped to take control of Yugoslavia, just like he had done in other Eastern European countries, but Tito resisted and gave the people the view that the struggle was one of Yugoslav national freedom. Yugoslav Communists did not see themselves as deviating from communism, only Stalinism. They kept with a more decentralized economic and political system in which workers could manage themselves and local communes could exercise some political power.

Dwight Eisenhower U.S. President 1952-1960
In his rhetoric President Eisenhower took a hardline approach to the Soviet Union. Publically adopting a policy of Massive Retaliation,which advocated the full use of American nuclear bombs to counteract even a Soviet ground attack in Europe.
However, in practice he took a more conciliatory approach to dealing with the Soviets.

Hardliners
Hardliners in the Soviet Union want the USSR to take a ‘hard line’ against its enemies, to build up the military, and to make Russia strong internationally. They tend to oppose deStalinization as a denigration of the Soviet experience.
Hardliners in the USA want the US to take a ‘hard line’ against its enemies, build up the military, and to make America strong internationally.


SECTION 3

Nikita Khrushchev - Soviet leader after Stalin 1956-1964 (SECTION 3)
- Berlin Wall: Erected the Berlin Wall in 1961 isolating West Berlin from East Germany
- Cuban Missile Crisis: In 1962 Khrushchev decided to send nuclear missiles to Cuba, but later agreed to take them back as long as Cuba wasn’t invaded. His failure to stand firm during the Cuban missile crisis led to his downfall;
- Because of his failures and reforms, Khrushchev was ousted by hard-liners in 1964
When he was on vacation in 1964, a special meeting of the Soviet Politburo voted him out of office, supposedly because of “deteriorating health” and forced him into retirement, eventually replacing him with (old school - Hardliner) Leonid Brezhnev

“Peaceful Coexistence”-
Khrushchev’s plan to beat the U.S. economically, not militarily. Part of the friendly face of Khrushchev.

Sputnik
First orbiting satellite put in space by the USSR in 1957. It became a symbol of pride/modernity to the Soviets, and a source of fear to US citizen. Americans were concerned that the Soviets were winning the “space race”

U-2
US High Altitude Spy Plane. Just when tensions were easing between the Super Powers, the Soviets shot down a U2, ending any chance for an easing of tensions in the early 60s.

John F. Kennedy- U.S. President 1960-1963
President who sparred with Khrushchev over the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Berlin (East & West)- (Section 3)
Not only was Germany split between US-friendly (west) and Soviet-friendly(east), the capital of Berlin was split as well. However, the city of Berlin was located within the boundary of East (soviet) Germany. This created the odd situation of West Berlin (U.S.) being an island surrounded by an unfriendly Eastern Block country. In 1961, Krushchev created a physical wall separating it from East Berlin/East Germany in order to keep East Germans from escaping to our side. The Berlin Wall was built by EAST Germans, around WEST Berlin, to keep EAST Germans from fleeing to the west.

Cuban Missile Crisis- Closest the cold war ever got to turning ‘hot’
In 1959 Fidel Castro took control of Cuba and established a Soviet-supported communist regime. In 1962, the Soviet Union decided to place nuclear missiles in Cuba. The U.S. did not want to allow nuclear weapons to be in such close striking distance of the mainland, even though it had its own nukes in Turkey in close range to the Soviet Union. When American intelligence discovered that a Soviet fleet carrying missiles was heading to Cuba, President Kennedy decided to blockade Cuba and prevent the fleet from reaching its destination, delaying the confrontation and allowing each side enough time to find a peaceful solution. Khrushchev agreed to turn back the fleet if Kennedy pledged not to invade Cuba. It was later revealed that if Cuba had been invaded, the Soviet Union would have used nuclear devices against American troops.

Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963- after the Cuban missile crisis scare, a hotline communications system between Moscow and Washington was installed in 1963 to expedite rapid communications between the two superpowers in a time of crisis. Also in the same year, the two powers agreed to ban nuclear tests in the atmosphere, a step serving to lessen the tensions between the two nations.

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