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Tuesday, November 17, 2009

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Adams

Section 1 Terms

Newton


“Dare to Know!”
Emmanuel Kant’s call for people to put away the ideas and assumptions that they have been taught and search for truth themselves. A nice motto for the Enlightenment,

Paris France
The heart of the Enlightenment.

John Locke (552)
Human Nature: Humans have no innate nature. All humans enter the world a blank page (tabula rasa). Personality is the result of external experiences. Experience shapes character. Improve human conditions = improved humans : )
Rejection of predestination and ‘original sin’

Print culture [of the 1700s] (553)
Enlightenment culture in which books, journals, newspapers, and pamphlets become very important. The volume printed increased as did the number of readers. The novel emerged in this era. Nobles and the middle class were expected to read and be knowledgeable.


High vs Low culture (554)
A division that emerged in the 1700s between writings aimed at the Noble and Middle Class cultures (high) and those writings aimed at the lower classes. All print culture had historically been high culture, but the growth of literacy sparked the development of low culure. In Modern America, TV is low culture, Opera is High. : )

Public Opinion (554)
A new creation of the 1700s. Art/thinkers had always been supported by wealthy patrons. Now, mass readership supported writers/thinkers/artists and created an independence and multitude of opinions that were widely circulated and often critical of those in power.

Coffeehouses (555)
A new creation of the enlightenment. A public space that provided a social spot for discussions of politics, literature, & ideas. Helped spread enlightenment ideas.

Freemason: (554)
Secret society created to spread/discuss enlightenment ideas. Subject of many conspiracy theories.

Section 2

Philosophes (554)
Enlightenment writers and critics who were the leaders of the new ‘public opinion’. In general they favored change, reform, and toleration. They were not an organized group and often disagreed with one another.

Voltaire (557)
The most influential and famous philosophe. Outspoken advocate for free speech and religious toleration. He rejected democracy and supported enlightened absolutism.

Candide (558)
Voltaire’s most famous work. It’s a satirical attack on 17th century Europe. It was also an attack on the Enlightenment optimistic assumption that 1) human society could be improved and 2) the optimistic notion that a deistic God has created the best of all possible worlds.

Dr Pangloss (cw)
Character in Candide that is a lampooning of the common enlightenment belief that a rational god had created a rational world. Dr Pangloss goes throughout the novel proclaiming that “this is the best of all possible worlds and the product of a benevolent creator” He is modeled on von Liebnitz.

Alexander Pope (cw)
Author of Essay on Man. In which he epitomizes the enlightenment optimism by proclaiming “whatever is, is right.”

Chp 17: Section 3
Deism (559)
Common enlightenment religious belief.
They believed that God existed, but only as a creator, not as a meddler.

David Hume (560)
Radical enlightenment thinker who
1) attacked Christianity and its miracles on a rational basis
2) attacked enlightenment faith in rationality. Created the famous “hume’s fork” in which he questioned the ability of humans to know anything with certainty.

Baron d'Holbach
Europe's first outspoken atheist. Although many are flirting with the notion, d'Holbach comes the closest.

Baruch Spinoza (560)

Mendelsohn (561)
Jewish philosopher who believed that Jews should maintain a distinct community and that this diversity posed no threat to the state. This was a radical view of religious tolerance at the time. Now, it’s pretty common. (I hope)


SECTION 4

Diderot
Philosophe who compiled the Encyclopedia.


The Encyclopedia
17 volume work spanning 20 years. Edited by Diderot, written by philosophes, it’s the greatest monument to the enlightenment. It was an attempt to compile all knowledge and secularize it. It spread enlightenment thought.

Cesare Beccaria
Applied reason to the laws and criminal punishment. He attacked torture and capital punishment as irrational. Believed that laws should produce the greatest happiness for the greatest number.

Physiocrats
Economic philosophers that attacked Mercantilism. Believed that LAND was the only source of wealth (not gold). Rejected mercantilist regulations and guilds as counterproductive to trade. They argued that the primary role of government was to protect property.


Adam Smith
Influential Scottish economist and author of The Wealth of Nations.
Associated with the term Laissez-faire (hands off) in which governments would play only a limited role in the economy.
Attacked Mercantilistic interference with the economy. Believed that wealth was created when individuals were free to pursue their “enlightened self-interest” He believed that self-interest was an “invisible hand” that guided the economy. He believed that competition was the natural check on self-interest and thus opposed monopolies (the definition of lack of competition).

SECTION 5
Baron de Montesquieu
Argued that the British Constitutional system was the best. Argued for Separation of Powers between the Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches. Believed that each would check and balance the others. Had a major impact on the constitutional form of liberal democracies for the next two centuries.

Separation of Powers (567)
Idea articulated by Montesquieu in which he described the brilliance of the British system.
Government power (which is dangerous to individual liberty) is spread out between competing institutions in government. Executive power to enforce the laws (with the King), Legislative Power to create the laws (with Parliament), and the Judicial power to interpret the laws (in the courts).

Checks and Balances (567)
Ideas articulated by Montesquieu in which he described the means in which individual rights are protected from government encroachment. Competing institutions within government would not be able to act without some form of limiting force from the other branches. In this way, no one power in government could become too dangerous without being ‘smacked down’ by another.
Example: how parliament ‘checked’ the power of the monarchy . . . by chopping off Charles I’s head.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau (Political Philosophy)
Man in a state of nature had been a “noble savage” and when we form governments we lose some of that nobility. When we form government we give up our “individual will” and infuse the government with what he called the “general will” It’s a radical form of democracy. Since the government represent the will of us all (general will), to obey the general will was the definition of freedom. ??!! [ As I hope you notice, this could easily degenerate into a form of tyranny of the majority. ]


Johann Herder (574)
German philosopher who condemned European colonization. He attacked the subjugation of people based on the new notion of ‘cultural relativity.’ For him, every society possesses intrinsic value and cannot be compared with another culture. Each culture, according to Herder, possessed deep social complexities that made simple comparisons impossible. With the new contact with different worldviews and cultures, it became increasingly difficult to believe that European culture was the only acceptable way of organizing humans.

Cultural Relativism (574):
The belief that no culture can claim its customs are more “right” than the customs of another culture. According to this view, it is not wrong for Amazon Rainforest indians to have multiple wives. If it’s OK in their culture, then it’s ok.
This is relativism ‘lite’.
It is still possible to be wrong WITHIN a cultural context.
Thus, once your culture determines that marriage is monogamous, then it is wrong to have multiple wives . . . in that culture.
As (educated) Europe came increasingly into contact with the rest of the world, cultural relativism became a more common worldview. It became more difficult to claim that European customs were the “correct” way.


“Man was born free, and everywhere is in chains.”
First sentence of Rousseau’s The Social Contract. He is diametrically opposed to Hobbes’ view of human nature and the state of nature. He believed man was a noble savage and that modern societies have a corrupting influence. (but an positive one as well)

SECTION 6
Rousseau (child rearing philosophy)
Rouseau’s Emile was a novel setting forth his radical version of family and childrearing.
He believed that women were inferior to men and should make themselves pleasing to men.
He also advocated a ‘laissez faire’ approach to childhood education. Children’s interest should determine their education.

Mary Wollstonecraft
The most influential female philosophe. She argued that a “women’s place” was actually one of victimhood to male tyranny. She advocated good education for women.

Salons
A salon is a gathering of stimulating people of quality under the roof of an inspiring hostess or host, partly to amuse one another and partly to refine their taste and increase their knowledge through conversation and readings. Hosting Salons was a major way women contributed to the spread of enlightenment ideas.

SECTION 7
Rococo
17th century art style that embraced a lavish, lighthearted style. It often dealt with the lives of the idle aristocracy and was often associated with them.

Neoclassical
17 century art /architectural style that was a throwback to the renaissance and classical worlds. Whereas Rococo was associated with the old regime, NeoClassical is often associated with the enlightenment values. Jacques Louis David was the most famous of this genre.


Posted by: Adams | Monday, November 09, 2009 at 07:09 AM

Enlightened Absolutism (section 8)
Late 1700s eastern rulers who had embraced enlightenment principals and attempted to incorporate these principals into their rule. These rulers strengthened the central absolutist administration (the monarch) and rationalized government. These monarchs attempted to strengthen themselves at the cost of lesser centers of political power (nobles, church, and parliaments). They’re doing what monarchs have been trying to do for 300 years but with an enlightenment ‘spin’

Frederick the Great

"the first servant of the state"

Polish Corridor

Catherine the Great

Charter of Nobility

Joseph II & Maria Teresa

robot

The Partitian of Poland


Adams

CHAPTER 14
Section 1
17th Century Explosion of knowledge AND new ways of knowing.
western world overthrows medieval, Ptolemy/Aristotle ideas replaced

Natural Philosophy: old term for “science”

Geocentric model: Earth –centered universe

Ptolemy: ancient philosopher who developed the geocentric model

Heliocentric model: Sun Centered model of the universe. First postulated by Copernicus.

Nicolaus Copernicus: Polish Astronomer who, attempting to clean up the mathematical problems of the Ptolemaic system, created the heliocentric model in 1543. Only accepted by a small number in the beginning. Significance? Man’s place in the universe?

Tycho Brahe: kept the most accurate observations of the time and his work produced the data from which others would work. He’s most famous for taking on Kepler as his assistant

Kepler-
3 Laws of Planetary Motion
Explained the “how the universe works”, but not the “why”
Significance: The universe is governed by Mathematical rules. it's not just random.

Galileo- the first European to make systematic observations of the heavens by means of a telescope, proved celestial bodies weren’t perfect, and discovered inertia. He became a high profile advocate of Copernicus.
He believed it was unnecessary to pit science against religion When the bible contradicted reason, the bible was to be taken metaphorically.
Significance: Poster Boy for the struggle between science and the church.

Inertia-
a body will stay at rest OR in motion forever until an outside force acts upon it.
first proposed by Galileo who added the "in motion" to Aristotle's ""at rest"
Revolutionary because it is counterintuitive to what you observe in your daily life.

Telescope- [in pop history] Galileo was the first to use the telescope to study the planets and stars, inaugurating a new age in astronomy


Adams

The REST OF 14
BAM!!

Midwife- a child-delivery assistant (traditionally a woman, men began to take over the practice during the Scientific Revolution).
Significance: well, this can be viewed within the narrative of guys muscling in on another field of women. OR
it can be viewed in the larger "scientification" of all aspects of life.

Francis Bacon-
He thought that the best guide to knowledge is through your own experiences and senses, that you should begin with observations and from them derive general trends (inductive reasoning)

Rene Descartes- the ‘father of modern rationalism’, he rejected everything he was ever taught and all assumptions of his senses and decided to only accept what his reason could prove true. In his Discourse on Method, he explained his belief that one can start with self-evident truths and deduce more complex conclusions (deductive method)

Benedict de Spinoza- a man from Amsterdam who was excommunicated from the Amsterdam synagogue. He was greatly influenced by Descartes and followed his rational approach to knowledge, but was unwilling to accept the separation of mind from matter, and of an infinite God from the finite world of matter. He felt God was in everything.

Blaise Pascal- French scientist who wanted to keep science and religion together. He had a mystical experience and from then on sought to convert rationalists to Christian religion, which he was determined to show did not conflict with reason (which was done in his book Pensées)

Inductive Method- reasoning from detailed facts to general principals using careful experimentation and sensory observations/experience (used by Bacon)
I see black crowes. only Black crowes. THEREFORE, "all crowes are black"

Deductive Method- reasoning from self-evident truths to complex conclusions using just reason, not experience (used by Descartes)
- All Crowes are Black
- That thing is a crowe
THEREFORE
- That thing is black

Scientific Method- Newton fused the inductive and deductive methods of reasoning into the single scientific method which began with systematic observations and experiments, which were used to arrive at general concepts. Deductions from these general concepts could then be tested and verified by precise experiments. The Scientific Method told how things worked but did not give an answer for why they did.

“Cogito Ergo Sum”- “I think therefore I am” said by Descartes, it was one thing that could not be disproved

Cartesian Dualism- the belief in the separation of mind and body (proposed by Descartes). Your "mind" is distinct and apart from "the universe"

Pascal’s Wager- Pascal decided that if he was a good Christian and God did exist, it would be good and if he wasn’t a good Christian he would go to hell. If God didn’t exist than it didn’t matter. Therefore it was a safer bet to be a good Christian just in case God exists.

The religious response to the new science- the church kept with the Ptolemaic-Aristotelian theory of cosmology, which greatly hurt them as mind of the educated person began to separate scientific investigations and religious beliefs. Science began to win over, causing a growing secularization in European intellectual life, exactly opposite of what the church had hoped for.

French Academy of Science- it received abundant state support, and its members were appointed and paid by the state. They were encouraged to do practical work to benefit both “the king and the state” (this was mirrored in German societies)

English Royal Society- received little government encouragement; its members appointed the new members

Siegfried Schlunk

Hey Mr. Adams, you told me earlier that there was going to be one question about Baron d'Holbach. Is that still on the test?

wesleya

yep

taylor

is there a terms sheet for chapter 14 on your website?

savannah

the authors to books is only from chapter 17 right?? or is it 14 also? and as for the science and religion matching.... is it like match a scientist to religion or match a religion to what it does, a scientist to what he did?

luke

what were 2 influential american ideas that montesquieu developed

Andrew

Who read most of the philosphes works? was it university students and professors or aristocrats?

Katherine

What were freemasons?

wesleya

secret society that promoted enlightenment ideas

wesleya

books are from both chapters

match religious opinion to person.

Hobbes - materialism
etc

???

who said "the first servant of the state"????

randomness
    robot?
Emily

what was the lisbon earthquake?

Katherine

Who's Baron d'Holbach

Sarah

Is Kagan's test bank just questions from the book, in general, or are they those questions at the end of each chapter?

And robot is 'obligation', I think.

wesleya

Sarah: some from the back, some not.
and ROBOT is the Serf obligation to work in austria.

Katherine: 1st outspoken atheist

Emily: Lisbon earthquake inspired Voltaire

????: Frederick the Great

savannah

sarahs right about the robot thing

Katherine- D'Holbach was one of the first known athiests/materialists. he's on the same page and section as hume and edward gibbon

and what is the lisbon earthquake????

savannah

fredrick II said "I am the first servant of the state"

:)

mr adams, will the religion questions be straight from the book?? like the people who came out and said : Well hobbes is a materialist, kepler supported deism...etc or will they be assumed??

wesleya

straight from book/class

Emma Pyron

to ???? it was Frederick the Great.

Sarah

Is the clock metaphor the deist belief that God was like a watchmaker?

:)

Sarah: yes...... pretty sure

what?

Do we just have to know the author works that are from the terms sheet?

:)

What is the difference between physiocrats and philosophes?

?

what is the difference between philosophes and physiocrats

Emma Pyron

to what?: the ones from ch.14 are mostly women astronomers and such.....

Emma Pyron

so Holbach was basically atheist and a materialist....a minority position... right?

Sarah

Physiocrats were the economic reformers in France, and Philosophes were the Enlightenment writers.

wesleya

What?: just those

: ) : Physiocrats are a specific group of french economists
Philosophe is a general term for French enlightenment thinkers.

Emma Pyron

to ?--- philosophes were figures who seeked to apply the rules of reason, criticism, and common sense to all major institutions(like church), economic practices, and religious policies of the day. -----physiocrats were economic reformers: the economy's improvement, and butting out the government, were all they cared for. Adam Smith is the big one.

Emma Pyron

what is a "mechanical" view of the universe??

what?

what is the Polish corridor and what is robot?

?

Spinoza closely identified God with nature... what religion would that be?

Sarah

Spinoza was Jewish, so Judaism is the religion.

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