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Monday, November 23, 2009

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Adams

FRENCH REVOLUTION TERMS DEFINED
Section: 1 and 2

ancien regime (the old order):
just a catchphrase used by historians to refer to Europe before 1789. It’s the world that the enlightenment thinkers opposed. Associated with arbitrary monarchy, lack of rights, etc. with it. The French Revolution attempted to eradicate the Ancient Regime.

Louis XVI:
the King of France during the French Revolution; did not agree with the Revolution but went along with it; tried to run away but was recognized;
(In SECTION 4) was beheaded by a vote of the National Convention dominated by the Mountain (Jacobins)

Marie Antoinette:
Wife of Louis XVI. Became a symbol of the decadent aristocracy for the revolutionary masses: “Let them eat cake.” Eventually executed by Robespierre’s Jacobins

Jacques Necker:
Swiss bank advisor to Louis XVI. (just recognize him if you ever see it)
Last ditch effort to save a bankrupt France

Estates General: the French parliamentary body that had not met since 1614 and was called by Louis XVI because of the country’s debt; consisted of three estates: clergy, nobility, and everyone else

Third Estate:
the estate in the Estates General consisting of 97% of the population and made up of all people who were not clergy or nobility (bourgeoisie, skilled workers, unskilled workers, and peasants)

Cahiers de doleances:
In a last ditch effort to fix a failing country, Louis XVI had the people of France make a List of Greievences that each community was to present for the King & the Estates General
Significance: Revolutions occur in times of rising expectation.

Sieyes’ "What is the 3rd Estate?"
Wrote the pamphlet that answered the question: What is the 3rd Estate. His Answer: Everything! (the 3rd estate, according to him, IS France.)
It was a popular pamphlet that circulated on the streets of Paris in the summer of '89.
It's similar to our "Common Sense"

Tennis Court Oath:
Oath taken by the Third Estate to become the National Assembly and to write a constitution for France. Beginning of the Revolution!!!

National Assembly:
The Third Estate invites the other 2 Estates to join it and call themselves the National Assembly. A symbolic gesture. “We are not divided into estates, this political group is an assembly of the entire nation.” The National Assembly then starts to create the new government (limited monarchy). It will become the Legislative Assembly when the limited monarchy is created

Great Fear:
Peasant Uprisings against the old order in the summer of 1789.
Based on their fear that the country was going to be invaded by foreign powers that would crush the revolution. . . and a desire to right injustices done to them by the nobility.
Demonstrates that 1) all classes were participating 2) it’s gonna get violent

The Bastille:
- A prison/arsenal in Paris. It became a symbol of repression and the old order.
- a mob in Paris overran and took it over on 7/14/1789 (while the bourgeoisie was meeting in the Estates-General. ) It was the major contribution of the Petty bourgeoisie and urban workers to the revolution. This street violence occurred while the bourgeoisie was worried about counter-revolution destroying their work.

7/14/89 :
Bastille Day.


Versailles:
The King’s palace 20 miles from Paris
The women of Paris marched to Versailles and brought the king back to Paris in '89


Women’s March:
march of Parisian women to Versailles because of inflated bread prices. Brings the King back to Paris making him a “prisoner” of the revolution

Declaration of the Rights of Man:
the document written by the National Assembly that gave citizens their freedoms. Freedom of Speech, Religion, etc. Major accomplishment of the early revolution. But one cannot eat Rights. . . hmmm.

National Guard:
People’s “army” of the revolution during those early days of the Revolution. Led by Lafayette.
It was like a private volunteer police force that served as the “muscle” of the revolution in the summer of ’89.

Marquis de Lafayete
- Famous French Soldier who helped in the American Revolution.
- Became an early mover and symbol of the French Revolution. Became head of the National Guard and a hero of the Revolution.
- As the Revolution progresses, he is perceived as “not revolutionary enough” and is executed by Robespierre and the Jacobins.



buy essay

Took me time to read all the comments, but I enjoyed the article.

Adams

SECTION THREE TERMS.
(NOT on quiz on Tuesday)

Civil Constitution of the Clergy:
document issued by the National Assembly ordering that all bishops and priests of the Catholic church be elected and paid by the state and that they must take an oath of allegiance to the Civil Constitution; was outlawed by the Pope and caused turmoil in the church and therefore in the lives of Catholic French citizens. Many priests, who had previously supported the revolution, refused to take the oath and were declared “Refractory” Clergy.


Assignats
Paper Money created by the new revolutionary government.
Issued on the value of the lands confiscated from the Church. The money lost value and led to massive inflation. Inflation hurts the poor disproportionately
Notice: Land was not given to the poor. Land was used by the new government to print money.

Corvees:
peasant obligations that are abolished during the 1st phase of the revolution

Tricolor Flag
Symbol of the Revolution. Thick Red, White, & Blue vertical stripes.
Replaced the White flag of the Monarchy. White becomes the symbol for conservatism for the next 100 years.

The Constitution of 1791
The first government created during the French Revolution.
It created a Limited Monarchy (like England’s) which focused on the rights of people
It represented the desires of the Bourgeousie elements of the revolution.

Legislative Assembly
the legislature of France from 1791 to 1792 (between the periods of the National Assembly and of the radical National Convention). In the spirit of “term limits” none of its members could have been members of the National Assembly. Its members were generally young, and, since none had sat in the previous Assembly, they largely lacked national political experience. It did not last a year and was generally deemed a failure.

Active Citizens:
Citizens who have rights and the vote, and pay taxes.
Rationale for only allowing the wealthy to vote: "Stake in Society" theory. Only those with something to lose should have a say in the government.
This distinction (Active vs Passive Citizen) was created in the Constitution of 1791

Passive Citizens:
Citizens who have all of the rights of Frenchmen; HOWEVER, since they don't pay much in taxes, are not given a vote (or a say in society)
This distinction (Active vs Passive Citizen) was created in the Constitution of 1791
Wow, Brentwood just put the screwgie on Antioch. Better watch Old Hickory Blvd for Trucks with guns. : )


Guild (CW):
kinda like a combination Labor Union and Business Association. Craftsmen (blacksmiths, brewers, etc) would combine into a guild and determine such issues as prices, product quality, training, etc. A Guild was also like a Brentwood Mega-Church in that it was the social center for that particular group AND would take care of members who needed help (provided a social safety net in bad times). Guilds were THE basic structure of the economy in europe from the middle ages to about 1800.
Adam Smith and the supporters of Free Markets pointed out that Guild restrict workers from making decisions about quality/pricing/etc. and cause prices to be artifically higher than in a free market. THAT is why the fist phase of the revolution abolished them. In order to Help (free) workers.
HOWEVER, guilds also were the social safety net for workers in bad times. oop


?

on the terms for sec. 1&2 you mention Robespierre and how he/she executes many...who are they??

yang

hey so i am guessing that we don't need know louis xv or do we

wesleya

Any reference to Robespierre will be understood after you read section 4 and 6. Until then, "forget about it" : )

Adams

Sections 4 / 5 / 6

Austria and Prussia:
countries who opposed the Revolution in France and created the Declaration of Phillnitz which invited other countries to fight the Revolution. (because each feared the revolution would spill over into their countries). Some French revolutionaries felt that a war against these enemies would generate patriotism and support for the government. Unfortunately, France’s war against these countries is going to bring down the Limited Monarchy.

Levee en masse
the People’s army (army of the masses) that was drafted (conscripted) to fight against the Austrian/English army during the more radical phase of the Revolution. Many of these people were fighting for “France” or “the Revolution.” Other armies at the time/history consists of conscripts or mercenaries.


Paris:
the heart of the French Revolution. The most revolutionary area in France. A lot of the country-side still supported the Monarchy. (and to this day is more conservative than Paris)

The Convention
Government which sat from 1792 to 1795. It held executive power in France during the Republic. In 1792, when radicals demanded the abolition of the monarchy, the Legislative Assembly called for the creation of a "national convention" which should draw up a new constitution. The Convention abolished the monarchy on its second day. The Convention lasted for three years and ruled France during the Radical phase of the revolution (and Reign of Terror)
The Republic:
Government of France between 1792-1794 (it replaced the limited monarchy)
Created by the radical revolutionaries after arresting ('92) & beheading Louis XVI ('93).


Committee of Public Safety
the de facto government of France during the Reign of Terror, created by the National Convention. It was formed under war conditions and with national survival seemingly at stake. The committee executed thousands of “enemies” under the pretext of being a supporter of monarchy or against the revolution.
.

Sans-Culottes (culottes are knee breeches): literally, ‘without knee-breeches’
The lower-middle class (Artisan / Petty Bourgeoisie) radicals during the French Revolution. They are more radical, have a new sense of class identity, and are taking to the streets. The sans culottes are the group the Jacobin Clubs claim to speak for.

Jacobins:
Political Clubs in Paris. Radical republicans, claiming to represent the interests of the sans-culottes. The Mountain AND Girondins had been members of the Jacobin Clubs.

Girondins
were a RADICAL political faction in the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention. (but less radical than The Mountain). One historian pointed out that Girondins were the radicals in the Legislative Assembly, but the conservatives in the Convention. They opposed executing the King and were supporters of the disastrous war with Austria. Eventually lost power to the MORE radical faction of Jacobins (the Mountain).

The Mountain:
Most Radical political faction in the Convention. Became fierce critics of the Girondins. The Mountain & Jacobins will eventually become synonymous. Claimed to represent the aims of the Sans-culottes.

The Plain:
In the French Revolution, the moderate deputies in the National Convention. They formed the majority of the assembly's members and were essential to the passage of any measures. They initially voted with the moderate Girondins but later joined the Mountain in voting for the execution of Louis XVI. In 1794 they helped overthrow Robespierre and other extreme Jacobins.


Republic of Virtue
Robespierre’s desire to reshape France based on the idea of civic virtue from the writings of Rousseau. He attempted to created a secular version of what Cromwell attempted in England. Most of France was not on board with his vision of Virtue. Who wants to be good all of the time??

Cult of Supreme Being
was a form of deism devised by Robespierre, intended to become the state religion after the French Revolution. The cult represents part of the "de-Christianization" of French society during the Revolution, in that Robespierre sought to move beyond simple deism to a new and, in his view, more rational devotion to God. Robespierre's proclamation of the cult as the new state religion in 1794 was one of the factors that prompted the Thermidorian Reaction, which ended this new religion.


Reign of Terror
was a period of violence that occurred for a year incited by conflict between rival political factions ( the Girondins and the Jacobins) and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution." Was led by the Committee of Public Safety dominated by Robespierre, in order to suppress internal counter-revolutionary activities The Terror's leaders exercised broad dictatorial powers and used them to instigate mass executions and political purges. The repression reached a peak in June and July 1794.

Guillotine
a device used for carrying out executions by decapitation during the Reign of Terror. It was created as a humane and rational way to execute enemies of the revolution.

Jean-Paul Marat:
Famous Jacobin killed in his bathtub by a Girondin.
His execution is used to justify The Terror. “We’ve got enemies of the revolution living in our midst!! We must root them out!”
Significance: Governments will often use a real tragedy to whip up people’s fear, and then use that fear to get people to go along with anything the government proposes for the safety of the
people.


Danton:
A leader of the Jacobins & colleague of Robespierre on the Committee of Public Safety. Eventually labeled an “enemy of the revolution” and executed during the Reign of Terror. His execution scared everyone, since it was obvious to all that anyone could be labeled an “enemy.” It was shortly after his death that a group got the guts to go after Robespierre and end The Terror.

Thermidorian Reaction
a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. It was triggered by a vote of the Committee of Public Safety to execute Robespierre and several other leading members of the Terror. This ended the most radical phase of the French Revolution. The name refers to 9 Thermidor Year II (27 July 1794), the date according to the French Revolutionary Calendar when this revolt occurred.

The Directory
was a body of five Directors that held executive power in France following the Convention and preceding Napoleon. The period of this regime (November 1795 until November 1799), constitutes a return to a more moderate/calm phase of the revolution.

Devebdra Banhart

Mr. Adams... Is this our textbook writer who co-founded Project for the New American Century?

http://www.newamericancentury.org/robertkaganbio.htm

Holy moly.

Devebdra Banhart

Looks like that's his son actually... but he was affiliated with PNAC.

wesleya

: (

(sigh)

unfortunately so

Anne

is the quiz over sections 3,4,6 or just 4 and 6?

Lindy

3 4 and6

Adams

Four and Six
ONLY

No 3

Boy #1

what terms in the 4/5/6 list do we not need in there cause they are from 5?

Adams

chapter 5 is not on the quiz

Adams

section**

:)

is it just over terms or terms and hw?

wesleya

Terms HW and class stuff
on the Radical Phase of the Revolution

Sections 4 / 6 (we skip 5 for now)

Adams


Napoleon Stuff

Elba : 1st island of exile for Napoleon (that is all). Small Island in the Mediterranean

Trafalgar
Famous naval battle in which England defeated the French Navy. It ended Napoleon’s hope for invading England. Established England as ‘the shark’

Austerlitz
Sweeping victory for napoleon against the coalition of Austria, Russia, & England.
Establishes His dominance of the Continent. he’s the “the tiger’ to England’s “shark”

Leipzig , Battle of (Battle of the Nations)
Famous first defeat of Napoleon, results in his exile to elba. That is all

Emperor 1804
His Title at the Height of Napoleon’s Power. Emperor from 1804-1814. Controlled the Continent

Peninsular War
Guerilla war in Spain. (French occupying troops vs Spanish insurgency) Napoleon had
difficulties eradicating the resistance. It sapped his time and energy,

Plebiscite
A simple yes/no vote.
Example: Do you want Napoleon to be Consul for life?
Used by Napoleon to show that he was the people’s emperor. go figure
Napoleon won those plebicite’s because the people were tired of Revolutionary violence/chaos.
He was a Hobbes-ian strong man who brought order.

“scorched earth”
Tactic used by the Russians against Napoleon’s invasion. just retreat as they invade, drawing
them further into the heart of Russia. Key point. Burn all supplies in your own country as you
retreat. This will deprive the enemy of forging for food (their supply lines are getting stretched
as they invade). Eventually, they the winter will get them. Same tactic worked against Hitler.

Coup d’etat:
any military overthrow of a government. Specifically, how Napoleon took control in 1799.

Continental System: The Economic System that napoleon enforced on Europe in order to stick it to the British. The Brits can’t do business on the continent. The Brits retaliate with a blockade around the continent. Everybody loses. It fails.

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