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Sunday, March 15, 2009



Chapters 1 & 2 stuff

John Maynard Keynes
- Economist who advocated government intervention in the economy.
A British economist who contradicted the traditional view that depressions should be left to work themselves out through the self-regulatory mechanisms of a free economy. Instead Keynes argued that unemployment stemmed from a decline in demand, and that demand could be increased by Government Spending (public works, financed, if necessary, through deficit spending) to stimulate production. (provided a sound economic argument against laissez-faire, saying that governments should spend tax money to get out of depressions).

Herbert Hoover-
U.S. President during the great depression who seemed unable to halt the economic downswing. His name is (unfairly) associated with the failure of a Laissez-faire approach to economic cycles

F. D. Roosevelt
- President who began the welfare state in the U.S.
Beat Hoover in an electoral landslide in 1932. Roosevelt created a new economic policy of government intervention known as the New Deal, which created a variety of new agencies designed to bring relief, recovery, and reform. After it became apparent that Roosevelt’s efforts had produced only a slow recovery at best, he inaugurated the Second New Deal, which included a stepped-up program of public works and the Social Security Act. The Roosevelt administration was responsible for the social legislation that moved away from laissez-faire and began the American welfare state. : )

Dawes Plan
- U.S. plan easing the post-war burden of Germany
the new plan for German reparations named for the American banker who chaired the commission, it reduced reparations and stabilized Germany’s payments on the basis of its ability to pay. It also granted a $200 million loan for German recovery, opening the door to heavy American investments in Europe that helped create an era of European prosperity up to 1929.

Locarno Pact-
Represented the acknowledgement of the failure of Versailles and a new spirit of reconciliation with Germany.
Concluded in 1925 by the foreign ministers of Germany and France , it guaranteed Germany’s new western borders with France and Belgium.

Kellogg-Briand Pact
- Treaty outlawing war
drafted by American secretary Kellogg and French foreign minister Briand, 63 nations eventually agreed to the pact in which they pledged “to renounce war as an instrument of national policy.” However, nothing was said about what would be done if anyone violated the treaty.

Intellectual impact of the Great Depression-
1. Showed the powerless of liberal democratic governments in dealing with the crisis. It forced many nations to begin taking actions (violating laissez faire) to fix the economies.
2. This collapse of capitalism led to renewed interest in Marxist doctrines (Marx had predicted that capitalism would destroy itself). Also communism took on new popularity with workers and intellectuals
3. the crisis increased the attractiveness of simplistic dictatorial solutions such as fascism.



Lenin- Vladimir Ulianov (V. I. Lenin)
Russian Marxist was arrested for his activities in St Petersburg and sent into exile in Switzerland. Eventually assumed the leadership of the Bolshevik wing of the Russian Social Democratic Party. When the Provisional Government was formed in March of 1917, the German High Command (hoping to create disorder in Russia) shipped Lenin and a small group of his followers to Russia. There he issued his “April Theses” on April 20 with his own version of the Marxist theory and many promises to the Russian people. In July 1917, Lenin and the Bolsheviks were falsely accused of inciting an attempt to overthrow the Provisional Government, and Lenin was forced to flee to Finland. Later he returned and in the October revolution was able to overthrow the Provisional Government in favor of a proletariat rule under the Bolsheviks.

a former Menshevik who closely cooperated with Lenin. Together they organized a Military Revolutionary Committee within the Petrograd Soviet to plot the overthrow of the Provisional Government. After the successful October Revolution, he organized the Red Army during the Civil War.

a small faction of the Russian Social Democrats who came under the leadership of V. I. Lenin, who led the Bolsheviks to become a party dedicated to violent revolution. Lenin believed that only a violet revolution could destroy the capitalist system and that a “vanguard” of activists must form a small party of well-disciplined professional revolutionaries to accomplish the task. He also maintained that that the soviets of soldiers, workers, and peasants were ready-made instruments of power to execute his Marxist revolutionary plan. By the end of October the Bolsheviks had achieved a slight majority in the Petrograd and Moscow soviets (which had increased from 50,000 to 240,000 party members). The Bolsheviks took over the Winter Palace in the October/November revolution and retained power through the civil war. They became the new Communist regime.

a council of worker’s and soldier’s deputies (radical socialist councils that sprang up in St. Petersburg, army units, factory towns, and rural areas). These soviets opposed the Provisional Government and represented the more radical interests of the lower classes. The most numerous group of socialists that composed soviets were the Socialist Revolutionaries who wished to establish peasant socialism by seizing the great landed estates and creating a rural democracy.

The Provisional Government-
a temporary government established during the March revolution by the Duma that met on the 12th, it was the moderate Constitutional Democrats that were responsible for its establishment. They represented a middle-class and liberal aristocratic minority who pushed a 19th century liberal agenda: freedom of speech, religion, assembly, and civil liberties. They wanted to carry on the war to preserve Russia’s honor; this contradicted the demands of the peasants and workers who wanted it to end. This Provisional Government was opposed by soviets (councils of worker’s and soldier’s deputies) such as the soviet of Petrograd and others that were popping up all over Russia. In the fall of 1917 the Provisional Government promised that a constitutional convention would confiscate and redistribute royal and monastic lands, but the offer was meaningless since the soviets now had the real power, and the peasants had already started seizing lands. After the Bolshevik seizure of the Winter Palace, the Provisional Government declared a Constituent Assembly to be elected by universal male suffrage. Bolsheviks were actually out-voted by the Socialist Revolutionaries who gained 420 delegates to the Bolsheviks 225. Lenin eventually broke the Assembly up with force.

Red Army
- represented the Bolshevik (Communist) forces during the Russian civil war, they were able to survive and defeat their White enemies because they had become a well-disciplined and formidable fighting force under the organization of Trotsky (commissar of war).

White Army
- they represented the anti-Communist forces. Their disunity seriously weakened their efforts; the distrust disrupted cooperation with each other. Although several different white armies were closing in on the Bolsheviks in late 1919, they were eventually pushed back

October (November) Revolution
- on November 6-7, Lenin and Trotsky led Bolshevik forces as they seized the Winter Palace of the Provisional Government. This coup d’etat was timed to coincide with a meeting in Petrograd of the all-Russian Congress of Soviets representing local soviets from all over the country. Lenin turned over the sovereignty of the Provisional Government to this Congress of Soviets. Real power, however, transferred to a Council of People’s Commissars, headed by Lenin. The Bolsheviks were now known as the Communists.

Civil War
- although Lenin promised the Russian people peace, there were still many groups who opposed the new Communist (Bolshevik) regime: groups loyal to the tsar, bourgeois and aristocratic liberals, and anti-Leninist socialists (Mensheviks and Socialist Revolutionaries). Also, thousands of Allied troops had been sent to Russia to get them back into the war. Between 1918-1921, the Red Army (Bolshevik Army) had to defend from many fronts; the most serious threat came from Siberia where a White (anti-Bolshevik) force under Admiral Kolchack advanced westward almost to the Volga River. Another threat was posed from the Ukrainians in the southeast and from the Baltic regions. In 1919, the most effective of the White generals, General Denikin, swept through Ukraine and almost made it to Moscow. Once in 1919 the Bolsheviks were nearly entirely surrounded by White forces, but were able to defeat them and push them back. By the end of the civil war, the Communists had succeeded in retaining control of Russia; their regime had transformed Russia into a bureaucratically centralized state dominated by a single party.

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
- 1918, treaty between the new Communist government and Germany in which Russia exited the war and in return gave up eastern Poland, Ukraine, Finland, and the Baltic provinces. Lenin argued that this didn’t matter because the socialist revolution was going to spread throughout Europe and make the treaty irrelevant.

- Drought resulting in great famine, peasants cheating war communism by hoarding food, and industrial collapse in 1921 led the Russian economy to the edge of destruction. In March of 1921, Lenin abandoned his war communism in favor of his New Economic Policy, which was a modified version of the old capitalist system. In this new system, forced requisitioning of food from the peasants was halted as peasants were now allowed to sell their produce openly. Retail stores and small industries (employing less than 20) could now operate under private ownership. However, heavy industry, banking, and mines remained in the hands of the government. After several years of the new system, it was apparent that NEP had saved Communist Russia from complete economic disaster, even though NEP was only meant by Lenin and other leading Communists to be a temporary retreat from the goals of communism.


Chapter 4 Stuff


Benito Mussolini-
(in 1919) laid the foundations for Fascism ( the Fascio di Combattimento).
The Italian parliament proved to be incapable of governing Italy. The three major parties, the socialists, liberals, and popolari (Catholic Democrats) were unable to form a governmental coalition. The socialists spoke of the need for revolution, alarming conservatives (who associated them with Bolsheviks) and the propertied classes. Thousands of industrial and agricultural strikes created a climate of class warfare and continual violence. Mussolini capitalized on this fear of communism and quickly shifted from leftist to rightist politics to appeal to the middle-class industrialists who feared working class agitation and large landowners who objected to the agricultural strikes. He realized that anticommunism, antistrike activity, and nationalist rhetoric combined with the use of brute force could help him obtain what had eluded him in free elections. Mussolini and his black shirts took up violent, terrorist tactics which they believed would lead to political victory, deliberately creating conditions of disorder knowing that fascism would flourish in such an environment. Once he gained power with his march on Rome bluff, he gained more power in parliament and the Fascist party grew in popularity. When the socialist deputy Matteotti was assassinated by the Fascists, many predicted Mussolini to resign, but instead he moved for a full dictatorship, gaining it in 1926.

General / Modern Usage: Extreme Right-wing beliefs of super-nationalism, militarism, and totalitarianism.
Specifically: Party begun by Mussolini that gained power by capitalizing on the propertied class’s fear of communism. Mussolini and his black shirts used terrorist tactics that they believed would eventually lead to political victory, deliberately creating conditions of disorder knowing that fascism would flourish in such an environment. Fascists construed themselves as the party of order, supported mostly by the middle and upper classes; white-collar workers, professionals and civil servants, landowners, merchants and artisans, and students made up almost 60% of the Fascist Party. Fascism was attractive because of the middle-class’s fear of socialism, communist revolution, and disorder.

IL Duce- Nickname for Mussolini. “The Leader”

“He made the trains run on time”-
Catchphrase to show that fascism was a system that worked for Italy and was efficient. Belief that Mussolini had turned the dilapidated Italian railway system into one that was the envy of Europe. Get it? Trains are a metaphor for Italy. : )
Many people saw Mussolini as a man who brought order to chaotic Italy and this was a shorthand way of admitting it. .

Black Shirts- Mussolini’s band of armed Fascists also called squadristi that was used to break up strikes by trade unionists, socialist workers, and peasant leagues by using force. By 1921 the black shirts numbered 200,000, attracting WWI veterans and students with the opportunity to use unrestrained violence.

March on Rome 1922- The Mythical taking of power by Mussolini
When Mussolini and the Fascists threatened to march on Rome in order to seize power in 1922. This was in reality no more than a bluff to frighten the government into giving them power. The bluff worked, and the government capitulated on October 29, 1922 when King Victor Emmanuel III made Mussolini prime minister of Italy. 24 hours later, black shirts were allowed to march into Rome in order to create the illusion that they had gained power by force after a civil war.

Lateran Accords-
Agreement between Fascist Italy and the papacy in which 109 acres within Rome, known as Vatican City, would be given to the papacy in return for its recognition of the Italian state. It also guaranteed the church a large grant of money and recognized Catholicism as the “sole religion of the state”. In return, the Catholic Church urged Italians to support the Fascist regime

Payne Busé

I thought that the Dawes Plan, Locarno Pact, and the Kellogg-Briand Pact were in chapter 5. Do we need to know them for the qiuz tomorrow?

Payne Busé

I thought that the Dawes Plan, Locrano Pact, and the Kellogg-Briand Pact were all in chapter 5.
Do we need to know them for the quiz?


what do we need to know for the quiz?

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