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Saturday, August 23, 2008


Alex Kramer

Hey Mr. Adams, Question.
For my essay, I was going to do my topics on the three artists Michelangelo, Leonardo Da Vinci, and Botticelli... Problem is, I can't correctly match them up to the values... Help?

Alex Kramer

Nevermind. I have Michelangelo with Individualism; Leonardo with Rationalism; Botticelli with Secularism.


wesley Adams

you don't have to do 1 thing per guy.
multiple values would work too

wesley Adams


Rebirth of .. . (cw) Renaissance means “rebirth” The Rebirth of europe after 1000 years of ignorance and dark ages. Renaissance humanists believed that they lived in a special time of the rediscovery of . . .

“Dark Ages” (cw): Perjorative (negative) term for the middle ages coined by Renaissance thinkers (Petrarch) . Renaissance thinkers considered the 1000 years after the fall of Rome (476 A.D.) as a period of superstition and ignorance (and that they were living in a new period of learning!) Modern Historians do not use this term.

Petrarch (323): “Father of Humanism” 1304-1374 Early figure in the Renaissance. He wanted a return to classical learning. Significance? Got the renaissance ball rolling.

Florence (320): One of the 5 major Italian city-states.
1) was the home-base for the Medici family. The most powerful banking family in Europe.
2) had the appearance of a Republic, but was really an oligarchy of businessmen
3) was the center of the cultural renaissance.

Constantinople (324-25): (Know the location)
At the beginning of the chapter: Capital of the shrinking/decaying eastern Roman Empire (the Byzantine Empire).
During this chapter: The Ottoman turks, who have been steadily conquering chunks of Byzantium, finally conquer Constantinople in 1453. ..and change its name to Istanbul.
Significance: As important christians flee the conquest, they bring greek cultural artifacts/writings to the Italian peninsula.

Fall of Constantinople (324-25): During this chapter, The Turks finally conquered the last holdout of the old Byzantine Empire, the capital at Constantinople. The Turks changed the name to Istanbul and made it the capital of their Ottoman Empire. Fleeing greeks brought much of their artifacts and works to Italy, fueling a greco-roman fad in Italy (called the Renaissance)

City States (319). Italy did not exist as a political entity. It was divided between 5 major cities-states (Florence, Milan, Papal States, Venice, Naples)

The Medicis (320-21): Famous Banking family in Florence. Kinda like the first Mob family. Patrons of the renaissance arts. Significance: Patrons of the arts in Florence.

Patrons (cw) : Financiers of Renaissance art. Somebody had to pay those artist guys. Wealthy families (the Medicis), Cities (Florence), and the Church (Julius II).

Humanism (321+):
Specifically: Renaissance intellectual movement focusing on the Greek and Roman Classics.
Generally: the Renaissance belief that man has inherent value and unlimited potential! Pico’s The Dignity of Man!

Liberal Arts (321): Seven areas of study that formed education (grammar, rhetoric, logic, math, geometry, astronomy & music) based on ancient “classical” values. Notice the absense of “Theology”

Vernacular (323): the local language of an area (not Latin). The Vernacular in France is French; England, english; Vienna, Italian; the American south, english? Latin had been THE language of educated europe; however, many authors had begun to write in their vernacular. Petrach’s sonnets were written in italian, as well as Donte’s Divine Comedy.

Section 1
Venice, Republic of (319): One of the 5 major Italian city-states.
Powerful commercial city that dominated trade in the Mediterranean.

Milan (319): one of the 5 major Italian City States. That is all.

Naples (319): one of the 5 major Italian City States. That is all.

The Papal States (319): One of the 5 Major Italian City States, centered in Rome.
This was land in central Italy that was governed directly by the church. The pope had Temporal power over this region, in addition to spiritual authority.

Republic (320)
Generally: Originally, any government without a Monarch. Modern definition - any government deriving its authority from the people.
Specifically: Several of the Italian city-states were republics ( Venice, Florence ).

Oligarchy (320):
Any government by “the few.” Aristocracies are a form of Oligarchy (rule by the few, nobles!)
Comes from the old Platonic model of: Monarchy (rule by the one), Oligarchy(rule by the few),
Democracy (rule by the many).
Florence was “officially” a Republic but one that was really dominated by an oligarchy of rich merchant families (businessmen). (no government proclaims itself an oligarchy, they are described that way)

Leonardo Bruni (321): Early Italian Humanist. Just recognize the name and be able to list him in an essay if possible

Baccaccio (323): Early Italian Humanist. example of both humanism and vernacular writings.

Castiglione (323): His book, The Courtier, was a practical guidebook for nobles. He suggested that young nobles behave with class in addition to beating the crap out of people. His suggestions never mention acting in a “good christian” manner. He just focused elsewhere. Example of Renaissance secularism.

Pico (325): Renaissance Humanist and author of “Ode to the Dignity of Man” Believed that man had unlimited potential and was a “chameleon” Example of Neo-Platonism.

“a chameleon” (cw): Pico’s discription of humanity. We have the abilty to be whatever we choose to be. We are not worms in the dirt or victims of cosmic forces. Great example of the “dignity of man”

Valla (326): Renaissance Humanist who used his knowledge of latin to show that the Donation of Constantine was a forgery. The Donation of Constantine was one of the justifications of Papal Supremacy over other archbishops. Contributed to the continual decline of the prestege of the Church with educated people.

Titian (cw): late Italian Renaissance painter. famous for his (secular) portraits.

Neo-Platonism (325): movement within the renaissance that attempted to bring together Christian teaching and the philosophy of ancient Greece. Botticilli’s is a great visual example of this method.

wesley Adams


Varsity Terms
Leonardo (329): Renaissance painter that typified the new RATIONAL (scientific) approach to perspective. One of the Big Three of the High Renaissance during the early 1500s. LAST SUPPER MONA LISA

Michelangelo (329): Renaissance Artist. Typified the “Dignity of Man” through his heroic male nudes. One of the Big Three of the High Renaissance during the early 1500s. DAVID, Sistine Chapel.

Donatello (328): Early Renaissance sculptor (early 1400s). His DAVID was the first nude, life-size, statue in the round since the classical era.

Raphael (329): Renaissance painter. One of the Big Three of the High Renaissance during the early 1500s. SCHOOL OF ATHENS, and lots of Madonnas.

Sandro Botticelli (cw): Early Renaissance artist. Mixed christian imagery with classical imagery (neo-platonism). BIRTH OF VENUS.

Cesare Borgia (332): Italian leader (punk). Son of the most corrupt pope (Alexaneder VI), Cardinal of the Church. Not exactly a model of christian charity. Did much to harm the reputation of the Church with educated folk.

Julius II (359): Renaissance Pope and Patron of the arts (Sistine Chapel). Typified the excesses and wealth of the Renaissance papacy.

The ends justifythe means (cw): philosophy of Machiavelli. Anything done in pursuit of a good goal will be 1) excused by history or 2) forgotten entirely : )

“a fox & a lion” (cw): suggestion by Macchiavelli that a leader should be tough/brutal to opposition that comes out against him, BUT be sly like a fox against enemies who try to backstab you. Notice, Machiavelli doesn’t suggest you “turn the other cheek”

wesley Adams

Varsity Terms
The “New” Monarchies (cw): Kingdoms that, in the late 1400s, began reestablishing/centralizing royal authority, suppressing the nobility, controlling the church, and dominating all territories under their rule. Spain, England, & France were the new monarchies successful in reversing the decentralized feudal system and sucking power from the Noblity & Church into themselves!

Isabella of Castile (336): New Monarch of Spain. Began unification/centralization of Spain with her marriage to Ferdinand of Aragon.

Castile (336): Powerful kingdom that will unify Spain. Isabella’s Realm

Aragon (336): Ferdinand of Aragon’s marriage to Isabella in 1469 begins the process of spanish unification.

Reconquista (336): The christian crusade to drive the muslim kingdoms out of the Iberian peninsula. Important step in the unification of Spanish authority. The last Muslim kingdom, Grenada, fell in 1492.

Grenada (337): Muslim Kingdom in the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. Isabella & Ferdinand complete the reconquesta by conquering Grenada in 1492!
Significance: Its destruction is an important step in the creation of Spain.

Inquisition (336):
Generally: Church court designed to root out heretics and enforce orthodoxy.
Specifically in this chapter: Instituted in Spain in 1492, to root out the conversos (jews and muslims who converted to christianity but retained their original faiths in their hearts - false converts.). Important (if repugnant) step in Spanish unification.

The Holy Roman Empire (337): (know the Location) NOT Holy, NOT ROMAN, and NOT an Empire.
A loose collection of GERMAN Kingdoms, principalities, & church holdings.
It is NOT the continuation of Rome and has NOTHING to do with that. However, Germany will eventually come out of it.
It is a collection of 300 smaller political entities ruled by an Emperor chosen from the largest piece (Austria).
Significance: Just when England, France, & Spain are becoming modern States (New Monarchies) by centralizing power from local nobles to a King, The H.R.E. fails to do this.
Thus, it fails to modernize and thus remains weaker than it should be compared to the emerging powers. (A preview: When the Germans DO get their act together and unify to create Germany in 1871, they will be the most productive and populous country in modern europe).

The Hapburg Dynasty (cw): Hereditary rulers of Austria! Always “elected” to be the Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. This dynasty failed to centralize authority in the H.R.E and failed to become a new monarchy, however, the H.R.E will dominate Europe internationally for some time to come. (but its inability to centralize puts it at a disadvantage against other states)

B-Team (section 3)

Torqemada (336): Head of the Spanish Inquisition. One bad mutha

Louis XI (336): “the spider” A New Monarch. King who began the centralization of France.

Henry VII (Tudor) (336): A New Monarch. King who began the Tudor dynasty and the centralization of England.
[War of the Roses, Battle of Bosworth, New Monarchs (& in a roundabout way Ferdinand/Isabella)]

Maximilian I (337): Hapsburg ruler of Austria. Tried to be a New Monarch by attempting (but failing) to centralize the Holy Roman Empire. Loser.

Moors (337): Muslims in Spain. Driven out during the Reconquista.

Battle of Bosworth (337): Battle that ended the War of the Roses, established the Tudor dynasty, and put Henry VII on the throne.

Conversos (337): Jews who converted to Christianity in order to avoid expulsion from Spain. These conversos (along with the Moriscos) were a big target of the Spanish Inquisition.

Caroline Coughlin

Mr. Adams, what does (cw) mean before a definition? is that just that it's not specifically in the book but we should know it anyway?

Julie Wofford

Mr. Adams, do we have to know the people in the terms quiz tomorrow?

Joy Porter

hey Mr. Adams, should we focus mainly on the varsity terms or would you like us to know all of it?

wesley Adams

CW means Class work. (not in book)
Know all words from sections 1 & 2
Varsity AND B-Team on this one

Matthew Honig

is the quiz on only terms you defined for us?

wesley Adams

(check the term sheet. I'm pretty sure i got most of them from those 2 sections. BUT make sure)

Madison Rush

is it only over section 1 and 2?

leah richardson

do we need to know the columns under concepts and places or just the terms and people?

wesley Adams

Only 1 and 2
People, places, terms

leah richardson

thank you!

Madison Rush


Devon Greig

He said the quiz would include both varisty and b-team terms.

allison & claire!

wait...i'm so confused..i thought this was like a five question quiz.

wesley Adams

it is. What's the confusion?
i'll list 6 definitions
You'll write OMIT next to one
and write the term next to five others.
: )

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